K8S自己动手系列 - 1.1 - 集群搭建

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K8S自己动手系列 - 1.1 - 集群搭建

荣滨 2019-06-09 19:20:14 浏览983
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准备

作为学习与实战的记录,笔者计划编写一系列实战系列文章,主要根据实际使用场景选取Kubernetes最常用的功能进行实验,并使用当前最流行的kubeadm安装集群。本文用到的所有实验环境均基于笔者个人工作站虚拟化多个VM而来,如果读者有一台性能尚可的工作站台式机,推荐读者参考本文操作过程实战演练一遍,有助于对Kubernetes各项概念及功能的理解。

前期准备:

  • 两台VM,笔者安装的OS为ubuntu 16.04
  • 保证两台VM网络互通,为了使网络拓扑尽可能简单,我使用的虚拟化软件为VirtualBox,宿主机为ubuntu 19.04,网络模式为Bridge

先解决网络问题

Ubuntu APT

https://opsx.alibaba.com/mirror
搜索 ubuntu

Kubernetes APT Repo

https://opsx.alibaba.com/mirror
搜索 Kubernetes

Docker Image Repo

# 此过程需要主机先安装好docker-daemon,参考集群安装部分有说明
1. 安装/升级Docker客户端
推荐安装1.10.0以上版本的Docker客户端,参考文档 docker-ce

2. 配置镜像加速器
针对Docker客户端版本大于 1.10.0 的用户

您可以通过修改daemon配置文件/etc/docker/daemon.json来使用加速器
sudo mkdir -p /etc/docker
sudo tee /etc/docker/daemon.json <<-'EOF'
{
  "registry-mirrors": ["https://ft3ykfyc.mirror.aliyuncs.com"]
}
EOF
sudo systemctl daemon-reload
sudo systemctl restart docker

集群安装

kubelet kubeadm kubectl

apt-get update
apt-get install -y kubelet kubeadm kubectl

docker

# 参考 https://kubernetes.io/docs/setup/cri/

# Install Docker CE
## Set up the repository:
### Install packages to allow apt to use a repository over HTTPS
apt-get update && apt-get install apt-transport-https ca-certificates curl software-properties-common

### Add Docker’s official GPG key
curl -fsSL https://download.docker.com/linux/ubuntu/gpg | apt-key add -

### Add Docker apt repository.
add-apt-repository \
  "deb [arch=amd64] https://download.docker.com/linux/ubuntu \
  $(lsb_release -cs) \
  stable"

## Install Docker CE.
apt-get update && apt-get install docker-ce=18.06.2~ce~3-0~ubuntu

# Setup daemon.
cat > /etc/docker/daemon.json <<EOF
{
  "exec-opts": ["native.cgroupdriver=systemd"],
  "log-driver": "json-file",
  "log-opts": {
    "max-size": "100m"
  },
  "storage-driver": "overlay2"
}
EOF

mkdir -p /etc/systemd/system/docker.service.d

# Restart docker.
systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl restart docker

初始化集群

确保swap关闭

swapoff -a
vim /etc/fstab

...
# comment this
#UUID=2746cf1b-d1ab-41e2-8a31-8c1ed2cca910 none            swap    sw              0       0

kubeadm init

  ~ kubeadm init --pod-network-cidr=10.244.0.0/16 --kubernetes-version=stable
I0608 11:05:15.863459    9577 version.go:96] could not fetch a Kubernetes version from the internet: unable to get URL "https://dl.k8s.io/release/stable.txt": Get https://dl.k8s.io/release/stable.txt: net/http: request canceled while waiting for connection (Client.Timeout exceeded while awaiting headers)
I0608 11:05:15.863537    9577 version.go:97] falling back to the local client version: v1.14.3
[init] Using Kubernetes version: v1.14.3
[preflight] Running pre-flight checks
    [WARNING IsDockerSystemdCheck]: detected "cgroupfs" as the Docker cgroup driver. The recommended driver is "systemd". Please follow the guide at https://kubernetes.io/docs/setup/cri/
[preflight] Pulling images required for setting up a Kubernetes cluster
[preflight] This might take a minute or two, depending on the speed of your internet connection
[preflight] You can also perform this action in beforehand using 'kubeadm config images pull'

解决镜像拉取问题

上面的拉取特别慢,所以需要从镜像仓库手工拉取镜像,并打tag替代从官方库拉取

# 查看使用到的镜像
  ~ kubeadm config images list
k8s.gcr.io/kube-apiserver:v1.14.3
k8s.gcr.io/kube-controller-manager:v1.14.3
k8s.gcr.io/kube-scheduler:v1.14.3
k8s.gcr.io/kube-proxy:v1.14.3
k8s.gcr.io/pause:3.1
k8s.gcr.io/etcd:3.3.10
k8s.gcr.io/coredns:1.3.1

# 手工拉取镜像
docker pull docker.io/mirrorgooglecontainers/kube-apiserver:v1.14.3
docker pull docker.io/mirrorgooglecontainers/kube-controller-manager:v1.14.3
docker pull docker.io/mirrorgooglecontainers/kube-scheduler:v1.14.3
docker pull docker.io/mirrorgooglecontainers/kube-proxy:v1.14.3
docker pull docker.io/mirrorgooglecontainers/pause:3.1
docker pull docker.io/mirrorgooglecontainers/etcd:3.3.10
docker pull docker.io/coredns/coredns:1.3.1
# 手工打tag
docker tag docker.io/mirrorgooglecontainers/kube-apiserver:v1.14.3 k8s.gcr.io/kube-apiserver:v1.14.3
docker tag docker.io/mirrorgooglecontainers/kube-controller-manager:v1.14.3 k8s.gcr.io/kube-controller-manager:v1.14.3
docker tag docker.io/mirrorgooglecontainers/kube-scheduler:v1.14.3 k8s.gcr.io/kube-scheduler:v1.14.3
docker tag docker.io/mirrorgooglecontainers/kube-proxy:v1.14.3 k8s.gcr.io/kube-proxy:v1.14.3
docker tag docker.io/mirrorgooglecontainers/pause:3.1 k8s.gcr.io/pause:3.1
docker tag docker.io/mirrorgooglecontainers/etcd:3.3.10 k8s.gcr.io/etcd:3.3.10
docker tag docker.io/coredns/coredns:1.3.1 k8s.gcr.io/coredns:1.3.1

再次执行,终于创建成功,输出如下:

  ~ kubeadm init --pod-network-cidr=10.244.0.0/16  --kubernetes-version=stable
[init] Using Kubernetes version: v1.14.3
[preflight] Running pre-flight checks
    [WARNING IsDockerSystemdCheck]: detected "cgroupfs" as the Docker cgroup driver. The recommended driver is "systemd". Please follow the guide at https://kubernetes.io/docs/setup/cri/
[preflight] Pulling images required for setting up a Kubernetes cluster
[preflight] This might take a minute or two, depending on the speed of your internet connection
[preflight] You can also perform this action in beforehand using 'kubeadm config images pull'
[kubelet-start] Writing kubelet environment file with flags to file "/var/lib/kubelet/kubeadm-flags.env"
[kubelet-start] Writing kubelet configuration to file "/var/lib/kubelet/config.yaml"
[kubelet-start] Activating the kubelet service
[certs] Using certificateDir folder "/etc/kubernetes/pki"
[certs] Generating "etcd/ca" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "etcd/server" certificate and key
[certs] etcd/server serving cert is signed for DNS names [worker01 localhost] and IPs [192.168.101.113 127.0.0.1 ::1]
[certs] Generating "etcd/peer" certificate and key
[certs] etcd/peer serving cert is signed for DNS names [worker01 localhost] and IPs [192.168.101.113 127.0.0.1 ::1]
[certs] Generating "apiserver-etcd-client" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "etcd/healthcheck-client" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "ca" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "apiserver" certificate and key
[certs] apiserver serving cert is signed for DNS names [worker01 kubernetes kubernetes.default kubernetes.default.svc kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local] and IPs [10.96.0.1 192.168.101.113]
[certs] Generating "apiserver-kubelet-client" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "front-proxy-ca" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "front-proxy-client" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "sa" key and public key
[kubeconfig] Using kubeconfig folder "/etc/kubernetes"
[kubeconfig] Writing "admin.conf" kubeconfig file
[kubeconfig] Writing "kubelet.conf" kubeconfig file
[kubeconfig] Writing "controller-manager.conf" kubeconfig file
[kubeconfig] Writing "scheduler.conf" kubeconfig file
[control-plane] Using manifest folder "/etc/kubernetes/manifests"
[control-plane] Creating static Pod manifest for "kube-apiserver"
[control-plane] Creating static Pod manifest for "kube-controller-manager"
[control-plane] Creating static Pod manifest for "kube-scheduler"
[etcd] Creating static Pod manifest for local etcd in "/etc/kubernetes/manifests"
[wait-control-plane] Waiting for the kubelet to boot up the control plane as static Pods from directory "/etc/kubernetes/manifests". This can take up to 4m0s
[apiclient] All control plane components are healthy after 18.005322 seconds
[upload-config] storing the configuration used in ConfigMap "kubeadm-config" in the "kube-system" Namespace
[kubelet] Creating a ConfigMap "kubelet-config-1.14" in namespace kube-system with the configuration for the kubelets in the cluster
[upload-certs] Skipping phase. Please see --experimental-upload-certs
[mark-control-plane] Marking the node worker01 as control-plane by adding the label "node-role.kubernetes.io/master=''"
[mark-control-plane] Marking the node worker01 as control-plane by adding the taints [node-role.kubernetes.io/master:NoSchedule]
[bootstrap-token] Using token: ss6flg.csw4u0ok134n2fy1
[bootstrap-token] Configuring bootstrap tokens, cluster-info ConfigMap, RBAC Roles
[bootstrap-token] configured RBAC rules to allow Node Bootstrap tokens to post CSRs in order for nodes to get long term certificate credentials
[bootstrap-token] configured RBAC rules to allow the csrapprover controller automatically approve CSRs from a Node Bootstrap Token
[bootstrap-token] configured RBAC rules to allow certificate rotation for all node client certificates in the cluster
[bootstrap-token] creating the "cluster-info" ConfigMap in the "kube-public" namespace
[addons] Applied essential addon: CoreDNS
[addons] Applied essential addon: kube-proxy

Your Kubernetes control-plane has initialized successfully!

To start using your cluster, you need to run the following as a regular user:

  mkdir -p $HOME/.kube
  sudo cp -i /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/.kube/config
  sudo chown $(id -u):$(id -g) $HOME/.kube/config

You should now deploy a pod network to the cluster.
Run "kubectl apply -f [podnetwork].yaml" with one of the options listed at:
  https://kubernetes.io/docs/concepts/cluster-administration/addons/

Then you can join any number of worker nodes by running the following on each as root:

kubeadm join 192.168.101.113:6443 --token ss6flg.csw4u0ok134n2fy1 \
    --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:bac9a150228342b7cdedf39124ef2108653db1f083e9f547d251e08f03c41945

安装网络插件

For flannel to work correctly, you must pass --pod-network-cidr=10.244.0.0/16 to kubeadm init.

Set /proc/sys/net/bridge/bridge-nf-call-iptables to 1 by running sysctl net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables=1 to pass bridged IPv4 traffic to iptables’ chains. This is a requirement for some CNI plugins to work, for more information please see here.

Make sure that your firewall rules allow UDP ports 8285 and 8472 traffic for all hosts participating in the overlay network. see here .

Note that flannel works on amd64, arm, arm64, ppc64le and s390x under Linux. Windows (amd64) is claimed as supported in v0.11.0 but the usage is undocumented.

kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/coreos/flannel/62e44c867a2846fefb68bd5f178daf4da3095ccb/Documentation/kube-flannel.yml
For more information about flannel, see the CoreOS flannel repository on GitHub .

安装完成后,查看所有组件已经成功运行

  ~ kubectl get all --all-namespaces
NAMESPACE     NAME                                   READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
kube-system   pod/coredns-fb8b8dccf-vmdsj            1/1     Running   0          24m
kube-system   pod/coredns-fb8b8dccf-xrhrs            1/1     Running   0          24m
kube-system   pod/etcd-worker01                      1/1     Running   0          23m
kube-system   pod/kube-apiserver-worker01            1/1     Running   0          23m
kube-system   pod/kube-controller-manager-worker01   1/1     Running   0          23m
kube-system   pod/kube-flannel-ds-amd64-cgnnz        1/1     Running   0          4m18s
kube-system   pod/kube-proxy-vfvkp                   1/1     Running   0          24m
kube-system   pod/kube-scheduler-worker01            1/1     Running   0          23m

NAMESPACE     NAME                 TYPE        CLUSTER-IP   EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)                  AGE
default       service/kubernetes   ClusterIP   10.96.0.1    <none>        443/TCP                  24m
kube-system   service/kube-dns     ClusterIP   10.96.0.10   <none>        53/UDP,53/TCP,9153/TCP   24m

NAMESPACE     NAME                                     DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   NODE SELECTOR                     AGE
kube-system   daemonset.apps/kube-flannel-ds-amd64     1         1         1       1            1           beta.kubernetes.io/arch=amd64     4m18s
kube-system   daemonset.apps/kube-flannel-ds-arm       0         0         0       0            0           beta.kubernetes.io/arch=arm       4m18s
kube-system   daemonset.apps/kube-flannel-ds-arm64     0         0         0       0            0           beta.kubernetes.io/arch=arm64     4m18s
kube-system   daemonset.apps/kube-flannel-ds-ppc64le   0         0         0       0            0           beta.kubernetes.io/arch=ppc64le   4m18s
kube-system   daemonset.apps/kube-flannel-ds-s390x     0         0         0       0            0           beta.kubernetes.io/arch=s390x     4m18s
kube-system   daemonset.apps/kube-proxy                1         1         1       1            1           <none>                            24m

NAMESPACE     NAME                      READY   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   AGE
kube-system   deployment.apps/coredns   2/2     2            2           24m

NAMESPACE     NAME                                DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AGE
kube-system   replicaset.apps/coredns-fb8b8dccf   2         2         2       24m

run a demo pod

  ~ kubectl create deployment nginx --image=nginx
deployment.apps/nginx created
  ~ kubectl get deploy
NAME    READY   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   AGE
nginx   0/1     1            0           9s
  ~ kubectl get pod
NAME                     READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
nginx-65f88748fd-95gkh   0/1     Pending   0          21s
  ~ kubectl describe pod/nginx-65f88748fd-95gkh
Name:               nginx-65f88748fd-95gkh
Namespace:          default
Priority:           0
PriorityClassName:  <none>
Node:               <none>
Labels:             app=nginx
                    pod-template-hash=65f88748fd
Annotations:        <none>
Status:             Pending
IP:                 
Controlled By:      ReplicaSet/nginx-65f88748fd
Containers:
  nginx:
    Image:        nginx
    Port:         <none>
    Host Port:    <none>
    Environment:  <none>
    Mounts:
      /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount from default-token-5kf45 (ro)
Conditions:
  Type           Status
  PodScheduled   False 
Volumes:
  default-token-5kf45:
    Type:        Secret (a volume populated by a Secret)
    SecretName:  default-token-5kf45
    Optional:    false
QoS Class:       BestEffort
Node-Selectors:  <none>
Tolerations:     node.kubernetes.io/not-ready:NoExecute for 300s
                 node.kubernetes.io/unreachable:NoExecute for 300s
Events:
  Type     Reason            Age   From               Message
  ----     ------            ----  ----               -------
  Warning  FailedScheduling  30s   default-scheduler  0/1 nodes are available: 1 node(s) had taints that the pod didn't tolerate.

查看错误原因,写的很清楚,没有可用节点,是因为我们唯一的一个节点worker01是master节点,master节点默认含有taint(污点),默认不可以调度业务pod,我们来去除这个污点,让nginx可以调度上去

  ~ kubectl describe node worker01
Name:               worker01
Roles:              master
Labels:             beta.kubernetes.io/arch=amd64
                    beta.kubernetes.io/os=linux
                    kubernetes.io/arch=amd64
                    kubernetes.io/hostname=worker01
                    kubernetes.io/os=linux
                    node-role.kubernetes.io/master=
Annotations:        flannel.alpha.coreos.com/backend-data: {"VtepMAC":"86:f6:8f:29:d7:c7"}
                    flannel.alpha.coreos.com/backend-type: vxlan
                    flannel.alpha.coreos.com/kube-subnet-manager: true
                    flannel.alpha.coreos.com/public-ip: 192.168.101.113
                    kubeadm.alpha.kubernetes.io/cri-socket: /var/run/dockershim.sock
                    node.alpha.kubernetes.io/ttl: 0
                    volumes.kubernetes.io/controller-managed-attach-detach: true
CreationTimestamp:  Sat, 08 Jun 2019 11:56:28 +0800
Taints:             node-role.kubernetes.io/master:NoSchedule
...
  ~ kubectl taint nodes --all node-role.kubernetes.io/master-
node/worker01 untainted
  ~ kubectl get pod -o wide
NAME                     READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE     IP           NODE       NOMINATED NODE   READINESS GATES
nginx-65f88748fd-95gkh   1/1     Running   0          4m11s   10.244.0.4   worker01   <none>           <none>

可以看到pod已经是running状态了,测试一下

  ~ curl 10.244.0.4
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<title>Welcome to nginx!</title>
<style>
    body {
        width: 35em;
        margin: 0 auto;
        font-family: Tahoma, Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;
    }
</style>
</head>
<body>
<h1>Welcome to nginx!</h1>
<p>If you see this page, the nginx web server is successfully installed and
working. Further configuration is required.</p>

<p>For online documentation and support please refer to
<a href="http://nginx.org/">nginx.org</a>.<br/>
Commercial support is available at
<a href="http://nginx.com/">nginx.com</a>.</p>

<p><em>Thank you for using nginx.</em></p>
</body>
</html>

成功!!

加入节点

在worker02上,执行:

  ~ kubeadm join 192.168.101.113:6443 --token ss6flg.csw4u0ok134n2fy1 \
    --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:bac9a150228342b7cdedf39124ef2108653db1f083e9f547d251e08f03c41945
[preflight] Running pre-flight checks
    [WARNING IsDockerSystemdCheck]: detected "cgroupfs" as the Docker cgroup driver. The recommended driver is "systemd". Please follow the guide at https://kubernetes.io/docs/setup/cri/
[preflight] Reading configuration from the cluster...
[preflight] FYI: You can look at this config file with 'kubectl -n kube-system get cm kubeadm-config -oyaml'
[kubelet-start] Downloading configuration for the kubelet from the "kubelet-config-1.14" ConfigMap in the kube-system namespace
[kubelet-start] Writing kubelet configuration to file "/var/lib/kubelet/config.yaml"
[kubelet-start] Writing kubelet environment file with flags to file "/var/lib/kubelet/kubeadm-flags.env"
[kubelet-start] Activating the kubelet service
[kubelet-start] Waiting for the kubelet to perform the TLS Bootstrap...

This node has joined the cluster:
* Certificate signing request was sent to apiserver and a response was received.
* The Kubelet was informed of the new secure connection details.

Run 'kubectl get nodes' on the control-plane to see this node join the cluster.

查看

  ~ kubectl get nodes               
NAME       STATUS   ROLES    AGE     VERSION
worker01   Ready    master   52m     v1.14.3
worker02   Ready    <none>   7m12s   v1.14.3

将demo的replica设置为2

  ~ kubectl scale deployment.v1.apps/nginx --replicas=2 
deployment.apps/nginx scaled
  ~ kubectl get pod -o wide                            
NAME                     READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE    IP            NODE       NOMINATED NODE   READINESS GATES
nginx-7cffb9df96-8n884   1/1     Running   0          5m2s   10.244.0.6    worker01   <none>           <none>
nginx-7cffb9df96-rbvsr   1/1     Running   0          3s     10.244.1.10   worker02   <none>           <none>
  ~ http 10.244.1.10
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Accept-Ranges: bytes
Connection: keep-alive
Content-Length: 612
Content-Type: text/html
Date: Sat, 08 Jun 2019 05:03:57 GMT
ETag: "5ce409fd-264"
Last-Modified: Tue, 21 May 2019 14:23:57 GMT
Server: nginx/1.17.0

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<title>Welcome to nginx!</title>
<style>
    body {
        width: 35em;
        margin: 0 auto;
        font-family: Tahoma, Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;
    }
</style>
</head>
<body>
<h1>Welcome to nginx!</h1>
<p>If you see this page, the nginx web server is successfully installed and
working. Further configuration is required.</p>

<p>For online documentation and support please refer to
<a href="http://nginx.org/">nginx.org</a>.<br/>
Commercial support is available at
<a href="http://nginx.com/">nginx.com</a>.</p>

<p><em>Thank you for using nginx.</em></p>
</body>
</html>

成功!至此我们安装好了两个节点的集群,并基于Flannel网络插件的方式,网络模式为VXLAN

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