利用 Kubeadm部署 Kubernetes 1.13.1 集群实践录

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利用 Kubeadm部署 Kubernetes 1.13.1 集群实践录

codesheep 2018-12-27 08:20:34 浏览2764
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概 述

Kubernetes集群的搭建方法其实有多种,比如我在之前的文章《利用K8S技术栈打造个人私有云(连载之:K8S集群搭建)》中使用的就是二进制的安装方法。虽然这种方法有利于我们理解 k8s集群,但却过于繁琐。而 kubeadm是 Kubernetes官方提供的用于快速部署Kubernetes集群的工具,其历经发展如今已经比较成熟了,利用其来部署 Kubernetes集群可以说是非常好上手,操作起来也简便了许多,因此本文详细叙述之。

注: 本文首发于 My Personal Blog:CodeSheep·程序羊,欢迎光临 小站


节点规划

本文准备部署一个 一主两从三节点 Kubernetes集群,整体节点规划如下表所示:

主机名 IP 角色
k8s-master 192.168.39.79 k8s主节点
k8s-node-1 192.168.39.77 k8s从节点
k8s-node-2 192.168.39.78 k8s从节点

下面介绍一下各个节点的软件版本:

  • 操作系统:CentOS-7.4-64Bit
  • Docker版本:1.13.1
  • Kubernetes版本:1.13.1

所有节点都需要安装以下组件:

  • Docker:不用多说了吧
  • kubelet:运行于所有 Node上,负责启动容器和 Pod
  • kubeadm:负责初始化集群
  • kubectl: k8s命令行工具,通过其可以部署/管理应用 以及CRUD各种资源

准备工作

  • 所有节点关闭防火墙
systemctl disable firewalld.service 
systemctl stop firewalld.service
  • 禁用SELINUX
setenforce 0

vi /etc/selinux/config
SELINUX=disabled
  • 所有节点关闭 swap
swapoff -a
  • 设置所有节点主机名
hostnamectl --static set-hostname  k8s-master
hostnamectl --static set-hostname  k8s-node-1
hostnamectl --static set-hostname  k8s-node-2
  • 所有节点 主机名/IP加入 hosts解析

编辑 /etc/hosts文件,加入以下内容:

192.168.39.79 k8s-master
192.168.39.77 k8s-node-1
192.168.39.78 k8s-node-2

组件安装

0x01. Docker安装(所有节点)

不赘述 ! ! !

0x02. kubelet、kubeadm、kubectl安装(所有节点)

  • 首先准备repo
cat>>/etc/yum.repos.d/kubrenetes.repo<<EOF
[kubernetes]
name=Kubernetes Repo
baseurl=https://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/yum/repos/kubernetes-el7-x86_64/
gpgcheck=0
gpgkey=https://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/yum/doc/yum-key.gpg
EOF
  • 然后执行如下指令来进行安装
setenforce 0
sed -i 's/^SELINUX=enforcing$/SELINUX= disabled/' /etc/selinux/config

yum install -y kubelet kubeadm kubectl
systemctl enable kubelet && systemctl start kubelet

安装kubelet kubeadm kubectl


Master节点配置

0x01. 初始化 k8s集群

为了应对网络不畅通的问题,我们国内网络环境只能提前手动下载相关镜像并重新打 tag :

docker pull mirrorgooglecontainers/kube-apiserver:v1.13.1
docker pull mirrorgooglecontainers/kube-controller-manager:v1.13.1
docker pull mirrorgooglecontainers/kube-scheduler:v1.13.1
docker pull mirrorgooglecontainers/kube-proxy:v1.13.1
docker pull mirrorgooglecontainers/pause:3.1
docker pull mirrorgooglecontainers/etcd:3.2.24
docker pull coredns/coredns:1.2.6
docker pull registry.cn-shenzhen.aliyuncs.com/cp_m/flannel:v0.10.0-amd64

docker tag mirrorgooglecontainers/kube-apiserver:v1.13.1 k8s.gcr.io/kube-apiserver:v1.13.1
docker tag mirrorgooglecontainers/kube-controller-manager:v1.13.1 k8s.gcr.io/kube-controller-manager:v1.13.1
docker tag mirrorgooglecontainers/kube-scheduler:v1.13.1 k8s.gcr.io/kube-scheduler:v1.13.1
docker tag mirrorgooglecontainers/kube-proxy:v1.13.1 k8s.gcr.io/kube-proxy:v1.13.1
docker tag mirrorgooglecontainers/pause:3.1 k8s.gcr.io/pause:3.1
docker tag mirrorgooglecontainers/etcd:3.2.24 k8s.gcr.io/etcd:3.2.24
docker tag coredns/coredns:1.2.6 k8s.gcr.io/coredns:1.2.6
docker tag registry.cn-shenzhen.aliyuncs.com/cp_m/flannel:v0.10.0-amd64 quay.io/coreos/flannel:v0.10.0-amd64

docker rmi mirrorgooglecontainers/kube-apiserver:v1.13.1           
docker rmi mirrorgooglecontainers/kube-controller-manager:v1.13.1  
docker rmi mirrorgooglecontainers/kube-scheduler:v1.13.1           
docker rmi mirrorgooglecontainers/kube-proxy:v1.13.1               
docker rmi mirrorgooglecontainers/pause:3.1                        
docker rmi mirrorgooglecontainers/etcd:3.2.24                      
docker rmi coredns/coredns:1.2.6
docker rmi registry.cn-shenzhen.aliyuncs.com/cp_m/flannel:v0.10.0-amd64

准备好的镜像

然后再在 Master节点上执行如下命令初始化 k8s集群:

kubeadm init --kubernetes-version=v1.13.1 --apiserver-advertise-address 192.168.39.79 --pod-network-cidr=10.244.0.0/16
  • --kubernetes-version: 用于指定 k8s版本
  • --apiserver-advertise-address:用于指定使用 Master的哪个network interface进行通信,若不指定,则 kubeadm会自动选择具有默认网关的 interface
  • --pod-network-cidr:用于指定Pod的网络范围。该参数使用依赖于使用的网络方案,本文将使用经典的flannel网络方案。

执行命令后,控制台给出了如下所示的详细集群初始化过程:

[root@localhost ~]# kubeadm init --config kubeadm-config.yaml
W1224 11:01:25.408209   10137 strict.go:54] error unmarshaling configuration schema.GroupVersionKind{Group:"kubeadm.k8s.io", Version:"v1beta1", Kind:"ClusterConfiguration"}: error unmarshaling JSON: while decoding JSON: json: unknown field "\u00a0 podSubnet”
[init] Using Kubernetes version: v1.13.1
[preflight] Running pre-flight checks
[preflight] Pulling images required for setting up a Kubernetes cluster
[preflight] This might take a minute or two, depending on the speed of your internet connection
[preflight] You can also perform this action in beforehand using 'kubeadm config images pull’
[kubelet-start] Writing kubelet environment file with flags to file "/var/lib/kubelet/kubeadm-flags.env”
[kubelet-start] Writing kubelet configuration to file "/var/lib/kubelet/config.yaml”
[kubelet-start] Activating the kubelet service
[certs] Using certificateDir folder "/etc/kubernetes/pki”
[certs] Generating "etcd/ca" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "etcd/healthcheck-client" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "etcd/server" certificate and key
[certs] etcd/server serving cert is signed for DNS names [localhost.localdomain localhost] and IPs [192.168.39.79 127.0.0.1 ::1]
[certs] Generating "etcd/peer" certificate and key
[certs] etcd/peer serving cert is signed for DNS names [localhost.localdomain localhost] and IPs [192.168.39.79 127.0.0.1 ::1]
[certs] Generating "apiserver-etcd-client" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "ca" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "apiserver-kubelet-client" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "apiserver" certificate and key
[certs] apiserver serving cert is signed for DNS names [localhost.localdomain kubernetes kubernetes.default kubernetes.default.svc kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local] and IPs [10.96.0.1 192.168.39.79]
[certs] Generating "front-proxy-ca" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "front-proxy-client" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "sa" key and public key
[kubeconfig] Using kubeconfig folder "/etc/kubernetes”
[kubeconfig] Writing "admin.conf" kubeconfig file
[kubeconfig] Writing "kubelet.conf" kubeconfig file
[kubeconfig] Writing "controller-manager.conf" kubeconfig file
[kubeconfig] Writing "scheduler.conf" kubeconfig file
[control-plane] Using manifest folder "/etc/kubernetes/manifests”
[control-plane] Creating static Pod manifest for "kube-apiserver”
[control-plane] Creating static Pod manifest for "kube-controller-manager”
[control-plane] Creating static Pod manifest for "kube-scheduler”
[etcd] Creating static Pod manifest for local etcd in "/etc/kubernetes/manifests”
[wait-control-plane] Waiting for the kubelet to boot up the control plane as static Pods from directory "/etc/kubernetes/manifests". This can take up to 4m0s
[apiclient] All control plane components are healthy after 24.005638 seconds
[uploadconfig] storing the configuration used in ConfigMap "kubeadm-config" in the "kube-system” Namespace
[kubelet] Creating a ConfigMap "kubelet-config-1.13" in namespace kube-system with the configuration for the kubelets in the cluster
[patchnode] Uploading the CRI Socket information "/var/run/dockershim.sock" to the Node API object "localhost.localdomain" as an annotation
[mark-control-plane] Marking the node localhost.localdomain as control-plane by adding the label "node-role.kubernetes.io/master=''”
[mark-control-plane] Marking the node localhost.localdomain as control-plane by adding the taints [node-role.kubernetes.io/master:NoSchedule]
[bootstrap-token] Using token: 26uprk.t7vpbwxojest0tvq
[bootstrap-token] Configuring bootstrap tokens, cluster-info ConfigMap, RBAC Roles
[bootstraptoken] configured RBAC rules to allow Node Bootstrap tokens to post CSRs in order for nodes to get long term certificate credentials
[bootstraptoken] configured RBAC rules to allow the csrapprover controller automatically approve CSRs from a Node Bootstrap Token
[bootstraptoken] configured RBAC rules to allow certificate rotation for all node client certificates in the cluster
[bootstraptoken] creating the "cluster-info" ConfigMap in the "kube-public” namespace
[addons] Applied essential addon: CoreDNS
[addons] Applied essential addon: kube-proxy

Your Kubernetes master has initialized successfully!

To start using your cluster, you need to run the following as a regular user:

  mkdir -p $HOME/.kube
  sudo cp -i /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/.kube/config
  sudo chown $(id -u):$(id -g) $HOME/.kube/config

You should now deploy a pod network to the cluster.
Run "kubectl apply -f [podnetwork].yaml" with one of the options listed at:
  https://kubernetes.io/docs/concepts/cluster-administration/addons/

You can now join any number of machines by running the following on each node
as root:

  kubeadm join 192.168.39.79:6443 --token 26uprk.t7vpbwxojest0tvq --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:028727c0c21f22dd29d119b080dcbebb37f5545e7da1968800140ffe225b0123

[root@localhost ~]#

0x02. 配置 kubectl

在 Master上用 root用户执行下列命令来配置 kubectl:

echo "export KUBECONFIG=/etc/kubernetes/admin.conf" >> /etc/profile
source /etc/profile 
echo $KUBECONFIG

0x03. 安装Pod网络

安装 Pod网络是 Pod之间进行通信的必要条件,k8s支持众多网络方案,这里我们依然选用经典的 flannel方案

  • 首先设置系统参数:
sysctl net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables=1
  • 然后在 Master节点上执行如下命令:
kubectl apply -f kube-flannel.yaml

kube-flannel.yaml 文件在此

一旦 Pod网络安装完成,可以执行如下命令检查一下 CoreDNS Pod此刻是否正常运行起来了,一旦其正常运行起来,则可以继续后续步骤

kubectl get pods --all-namespaces -o wide

检查所有pod是否正常启动

同时我们可以看到主节点已经就绪:kubectl get nodes

查看主节点状态


添加 Slave节点

在两个 Slave节点上分别执行如下命令来让其加入Master上已经就绪了的 k8s集群:

kubeadm join --token <token> <master-ip>:<master-port> --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:<hash>

如果 token忘记,则可以去 Master上执行如下命令来获取:

kubeadm token list

上述kubectl join命令的执行结果如下:

[root@localhost ~]# kubeadm join 192.168.39.79:6443 --token yndddp.oamgloerxuune80q --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:7a45c40b5302aba7d8b9cbd3afc6d25c6bb8536dd6317aebcd2909b0427677c8
[preflight] Running pre-flight checks
[discovery] Trying to connect to API Server "192.168.39.79:6443”
[discovery] Created cluster-info discovery client, requesting info from "https://192.168.39.79:6443”
[discovery] Requesting info from "https://192.168.39.79:6443" again to validate TLS against the pinned public key
[discovery] Cluster info signature and contents are valid and TLS certificate validates against pinned roots, will use API Server "192.168.39.79:6443”
[discovery] Successfully established connection with API Server "192.168.39.79:6443”
[join] Reading configuration from the cluster…
[join] FYI: You can look at this config file with 'kubectl -n kube-system get cm kubeadm-config -oyaml’
[kubelet] Downloading configuration for the kubelet from the "kubelet-config-1.13" ConfigMap in the kube-system namespace
[kubelet-start] Writing kubelet configuration to file "/var/lib/kubelet/config.yaml”
[kubelet-start] Writing kubelet environment file with flags to file "/var/lib/kubelet/kubeadm-flags.env”
[kubelet-start] Activating the kubelet service
[tlsbootstrap] Waiting for the kubelet to perform the TLS Bootstrap…
[patchnode] Uploading the CRI Socket information "/var/run/dockershim.sock" to the Node API object "localhost.localdomain" as an annotation

This node has joined the cluster:
* Certificate signing request was sent to apiserver and a response was received.
* The Kubelet was informed of the new secure connection details.

Run 'kubectl get nodes' on the master to see this node join the cluster.

效果验证

  • 查看节点状态
kubectl get nodes

节点状态

  • 查看所有 Pod状态
kubectl get pods --all-namespaces -o wide

查看所有 Pod状态

好了,集群现在已经正常运行了,接下来看看如何正常的拆卸集群。


拆卸集群

首先处理各节点:

kubectl drain <node name> --delete-local-data --force --ignore-daemonsets
kubectl delete node <node name>

一旦节点移除之后,则可以执行如下命令来重置集群:

kubeadm reset

安装 dashboard

就像给elasticsearch配一个可视化的管理工具一样,我们最好也给 k8s集群配一个可视化的管理工具,便于管理集群。

因此我们接下来安装 v1.10.0版本的 kubernetes-dashboard,用于集群可视化的管理。

  • 首先手动下载镜像并重新打标签:(所有节点)
docker pull registry.cn-qingdao.aliyuncs.com/wangxiaoke/kubernetes-dashboard-amd64:v1.10.0
docker tag registry.cn-qingdao.aliyuncs.com/wangxiaoke/kubernetes-dashboard-amd64:v1.10.0 k8s.gcr.io/kubernetes-dashboard-amd64:v1.10.0
docker image rm registry.cn-qingdao.aliyuncs.com/wangxiaoke/kubernetes-dashboard-amd64:v1.10.0
  • 安装 dashboard:
kubectl create -f dashboard.yaml

dashboard.yaml 文件在此

  • 查看 dashboard的 pod是否正常启动,如果正常说明安装成功:
 kubectl get pods --namespace=kube-system
[root@k8s-master ~]# kubectl get pods --namespace=kube-system
NAME                                    READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
coredns-86c58d9df4-4rds2                1/1     Running   0          81m
coredns-86c58d9df4-rhtgq                1/1     Running   0          81m
etcd-k8s-master                         1/1     Running   0          80m
kube-apiserver-k8s-master               1/1     Running   0          80m
kube-controller-manager-k8s-master      1/1     Running   0          80m
kube-flannel-ds-amd64-8qzpx             1/1     Running   0          78m
kube-flannel-ds-amd64-jvp59             1/1     Running   0          77m
kube-flannel-ds-amd64-wztbk             1/1     Running   0          78m
kube-proxy-crr7k                        1/1     Running   0          81m
kube-proxy-gk5vf                        1/1     Running   0          78m
kube-proxy-ktr27                        1/1     Running   0          77m
kube-scheduler-k8s-master               1/1     Running   0          80m
kubernetes-dashboard-79ff88449c-v2jnc   1/1     Running   0          21s
  • 查看 dashboard的外网暴露端口
kubectl get service --namespace=kube-system
NAME                   TYPE        CLUSTER-IP      EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)         AGE
kube-dns               ClusterIP   10.96.0.10      <none>        53/UDP,53/TCP   5h38m
kubernetes-dashboard   NodePort    10.99.242.186   <none>        443:31234/TCP   14
  • 生成私钥和证书签名:
openssl genrsa -des3 -passout pass:x -out dashboard.pass.key 2048
openssl rsa -passin pass:x -in dashboard.pass.key -out dashboard.key
rm dashboard.pass.key
openssl req -new -key dashboard.key -out dashboard.csr【如遇输入,一路回车即可】
  • 生成SSL证书:
openssl x509 -req -sha256 -days 365 -in dashboard.csr -signkey dashboard.key -out dashboard.crt
  • 然后将生成的 dashboard.keydashboard.crt置于路径 /home/share/certs下,该路径会配置到下面即将要操作的

dashboard-user-role.yaml文件中

  • 创建 dashboard用户
 kubectl create -f dashboard-user-role.yaml

dashboard-user-role.yaml 文件在此

  • 获取登陆token
kubectl describe secret/$(kubectl get secret -nkube-system |grep admin|awk '{print $1}') -nkube-system
[root@k8s-master ~]# kubectl describe secret/$(kubectl get secret -nkube-system |grep admin|awk '{print $1}') -nkube-system
Name:         admin-token-9d4vl
Namespace:    kube-system
Labels:       <none>
Annotations:  kubernetes.io/service-account.name: admin
              kubernetes.io/service-account.uid: a320b00f-07ed-11e9-93f2-000c2978f207

Type:  kubernetes.io/service-account-token

Data
====
ca.crt:     1025 bytes
namespace:  11 bytes
token:      eyJhbGciOiJSUzI1NiIsImtpZCI6IiJ9.eyJpc3MiOiJrdWJlcm5ldGVzL3NlcnZpY2VhY2NvdW50Iiwia3ViZXJuZXRlcy5pby9zZXJ2aWNlYWNjb3VudC9uYW1lc3BhY2UiOiJrdWJlLXN5c3RlbSIsImt1YmVybmV0ZXMuaW8vc2VydmljZWFjY291bnQvc2VjcmV0Lm5hbWUiOiJhZG1pbi10b2tlbi05ZDR2bCIsImt1YmVybmV0ZXMuaW8vc2VydmljZWFjY291bnQvc2VydmljZS1hY2NvdW50Lm5hbWUiOiJhZG1pbiIsImt1YmVybmV0ZXMuaW8vc2VydmljZWFjY291bnQvc2VydmljZS1hY2NvdW50LnVpZCI6ImEzMjBiMDBmLTA3ZWQtMTFlOS05M2YyLTAwMGMyOTc4ZjIwNyIsInN1YiI6InN5c3RlbTpzZXJ2aWNlYWNjb3VudDprdWJlLXN5c3RlbTphZG1pbiJ9.WbaHx-BfZEd0SvJwA9V_vGUe8jPMUHjKlkT7MWJ4JcQldRFY8Tdpv5GKCY25JsvT_GM3ob303r0yE6vjQdKna7EfQNO_Wb2j1Yu5UvZnWw52HhNudHNOVL_fFRKxkSVjAILA_C_HvW6aw6TG5h7zHARgl71I0LpW1VESeHeThipQ-pkt-Dr1jWcpPgE39cwxSgi-5qY4ssbyYBc2aPYLsqJibmE-KUhwmyOheF4Lxpg7E3SQEczsig2HjXpNtJizCu0kPyiR4qbbsusulH-kdgjhmD9_XWP9k0BzgutXWteV8Iqe4-uuRGHZAxgutCvaL5qENv4OAlaArlZqSgkNWw

token既然生成成功,接下来就可以打开浏览器,输入 token来登录进集群管理页面:

登录集群管理页面

集群概览


后 记

由于能力有限,若有错误或者不当之处,还请大家批评指正,一起学习交流!



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