基于kubeadm的kubernetes高可用集群部署

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基于kubeadm的kubernetes高可用集群部署

店家小二 2018-12-13 21:34:00 浏览736
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部署架构


概要部署架构

ha logo
  • kubernetes高可用的核心架构是master的高可用,kubectl、客户端以及nodes访问load balancer实现高可用。

返回目录

详细部署架构

k8s ha
  • kubernetes组件说明

kube-apiserver:集群核心,集群API接口、集群各个组件通信的中枢;集群安全控制;

etcd:集群的数据中心,用于存放集群的配置以及状态信息,非常重要,如果数据丢失那么集群将无法恢复;因此高可用集群部署首先就是etcd是高可用集群;

kube-scheduler:集群Pod的调度中心;默认kubeadm安装情况下--leader-elect参数已经设置为true,保证master集群中只有一个kube-scheduler处于活跃状态;

kube-controller-manager:集群状态管理器,当集群状态与期望不同时,kcm会努力让集群恢复期望状态,比如:当一个pod死掉,kcm会努力新建一个pod来恢复对应replicas set期望的状态;默认kubeadm安装情况下--leader-elect参数已经设置为true,保证master集群中只有一个kube-controller-manager处于活跃状态;

kubelet: kubernetes node agent,负责与node上的docker engine打交道;

kube-proxy: 每个node上一个,负责service vip到endpoint pod的流量转发,当前主要通过设置iptables规则实现。

  • 负载均衡

keepalived集群设置一个虚拟ip地址,虚拟ip地址指向k8s-master1、k8s-master2、k8s-master3。

nginx用于k8s-master1、k8s-master2、k8s-master3的apiserver的负载均衡。外部kubectl以及nodes访问apiserver的时候就可以用过keepalived的虚拟ip(192.168.60.80)以及nginx端口(8443)访问master集群的apiserver。


返回目录

主机节点清单

主机名 IP地址 说明 组件
k8s-master1 192.168.60.71 master节点1 keepalived、nginx、etcd、kubelet、kube-apiserver、kube-scheduler、kube-proxy、kube-dashboard、heapster
k8s-master2 192.168.60.72 master节点2 keepalived、nginx、etcd、kubelet、kube-apiserver、kube-scheduler、kube-proxy、kube-dashboard、heapster
k8s-master3 192.168.60.73 master节点3 keepalived、nginx、etcd、kubelet、kube-apiserver、kube-scheduler、kube-proxy、kube-dashboard、heapster
192.168.60.80 keepalived虚拟IP
k8s-node1 ~ 8 192.168.60.81 ~ 88 8个node节点 kubelet、kube-proxy

返回目录

安装前准备

版本信息

  • Linux版本:CentOS 7.3.1611
cat /etc/redhat-release 
CentOS Linux release 7.3.1611 (Core) 
  • docker版本:1.12.6
$ docker version
Client:
 Version: 1.12.6
 API version: 1.24
 Go version: go1.6.4
 Git commit: 78d1802
 Built: Tue Jan 10 20:20:01 2017
 OS/Arch: linux/amd64

Server:
 Version: 1.12.6
 API version: 1.24 Go version: go1.6.4
 Git commit: 78d1802
 Built: Tue Jan 10 20:20:01 2017
 OS/Arch: linux/amd64
  • kubeadm版本:v1.6.4
$ kubeadm version
kubeadm version: version.Info{Major:"1", Minor:"6", GitVersion:"v1.6.4", GitCommit:"d6f433224538d4f9ca2f7ae19b252e6fcb66a3ae", GitTreeState:"clean", BuildDate:"2017-05-19T18:33:17Z", GoVersion:"go1.7.5", Compiler:"gc", Platform:"linux/amd64"}
  • kubelet版本:v1.6.4
$ kubelet --version
Kubernetes v1.6.4

返回目录

所需docker镜像

  • 国内可以使用daocloud加速器下载相关镜像,然后通过docker save、docker load把本地下载的镜像放到kubernetes集群的所在机器上,daocloud加速器链接如下:

https://www.daocloud.io/mirror#accelerator-doc

  • 在本机MacOSX上pull相关docker镜像
$ docker pull gcr.io/google_containers/kube-apiserver-amd64:v1.6.4 $ docker pull gcr.io/google_containers/kube-proxy-amd64:v1.6.4 $ docker pull gcr.io/google_containers/kube-controller-manager-amd64:v1.6.4 $ docker pull gcr.io/google_containers/kube-scheduler-amd64:v1.6.4 $ docker pull gcr.io/google_containers/kubernetes-dashboard-amd64:v1.6.1 $ docker pull quay.io/coreos/flannel:v0.7.1-amd64 $ docker pull gcr.io/google_containers/heapster-amd64:v1.3.0 $ docker pull gcr.io/google_containers/k8s-dns-sidecar-amd64:1.14.1 $ docker pull gcr.io/google_containers/k8s-dns-kube-dns-amd64:1.14.1 $ docker pull gcr.io/google_containers/k8s-dns-dnsmasq-nanny-amd64:1.14.1 $ docker pull gcr.io/google_containers/etcd-amd64:3.0.17 $ docker pull gcr.io/google_containers/heapster-grafana-amd64:v4.0.2 $ docker pull gcr.io/google_containers/heapster-influxdb-amd64:v1.1.1 $ docker pull nginx:latest $ docker pull gcr.io/google_containers/pause-amd64:3.0 
  • 在本机MacOSX上获取代码,并进入代码目录
$ git clone https://github.com/cookeem/kubeadm-ha $ cd kubeadm-ha 
  • 在本机MacOSX上把相关docker镜像保存成文件
$ mkdir -p docker-images $ docker save -o docker-images/kube-apiserver-amd64 gcr.io/google_containers/kube-apiserver-amd64:v1.6.4 $ docker save -o docker-images/kube-proxy-amd64 gcr.io/google_containers/kube-proxy-amd64:v1.6.4 $ docker save -o docker-images/kube-controller-manager-amd64 gcr.io/google_containers/kube-controller-manager-amd64:v1.6.4 $ docker save -o docker-images/kube-scheduler-amd64 gcr.io/google_containers/kube-scheduler-amd64:v1.6.4 $ docker save -o docker-images/kubernetes-dashboard-amd64 gcr.io/google_containers/kubernetes-dashboard-amd64:v1.6.1 $ docker save -o docker-images/flannel quay.io/coreos/flannel:v0.7.1-amd64 $ docker save -o docker-images/heapster-amd64 gcr.io/google_containers/heapster-amd64:v1.3.0 $ docker save -o docker-images/k8s-dns-sidecar-amd64 gcr.io/google_containers/k8s-dns-sidecar-amd64:1.14.1 $ docker save -o docker-images/k8s-dns-kube-dns-amd64 gcr.io/google_containers/k8s-dns-kube-dns-amd64:1.14.1 $ docker save -o docker-images/k8s-dns-dnsmasq-nanny-amd64 gcr.io/google_containers/k8s-dns-dnsmasq-nanny-amd64:1.14.1 $ docker save -o docker-images/etcd-amd64 gcr.io/google_containers/etcd-amd64:3.0.17 $ docker save -o docker-images/heapster-grafana-amd64 gcr.io/google_containers/heapster-grafana-amd64:v4.0.2 $ docker save -o docker-images/heapster-influxdb-amd64 gcr.io/google_containers/heapster-influxdb-amd64:v1.1.1 $ docker save -o docker-images/pause-amd64 gcr.io/google_containers/pause-amd64:3.0 $ docker save -o docker-images/nginx nginx:latest 
  • 在本机MacOSX上把代码以及docker镜像复制到所有节点上
$ scp -r * root@k8s-master1:/root/kubeadm-ha $ scp -r * root@k8s-master2:/root/kubeadm-ha $ scp -r * root@k8s-master3:/root/kubeadm-ha $ scp -r * root@k8s-node1:/root/kubeadm-ha $ scp -r * root@k8s-node2:/root/kubeadm-ha $ scp -r * root@k8s-node3:/root/kubeadm-ha $ scp -r * root@k8s-node4:/root/kubeadm-ha $ scp -r * root@k8s-node5:/root/kubeadm-ha $ scp -r * root@k8s-node6:/root/kubeadm-ha $ scp -r * root@k8s-node7:/root/kubeadm-ha $ scp -r * root@k8s-node8:/root/kubeadm-ha 

返回目录

系统设置

  • 以下在kubernetes所有节点上都是使用root用户进行操作

  • 在kubernetes所有节点上增加kubernetes仓库

$ cat <<EOF > /etc/yum.repos.d/kubernetes.repo
[kubernetes]
name=Kubernetes
baseurl=https://packages.cloud.google.com/yum/repos/kubernetes-el7-x86_64
enabled=1
gpgcheck=1
repo_gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=https://packages.cloud.google.com/yum/doc/yum-key.gpg
 https://packages.cloud.google.com/yum/doc/rpm-package-key.gpg
EOF
  • 在kubernetes所有节点上进行系统更新
$ yum update -y 
  • 在kubernetes所有节点上关闭防火墙
$ systemctl disable firewalld && systemctl stop firewalld && systemctl status firewalld 
  • 在kubernetes所有节点上设置SELINUX为permissive模式
$ vi /etc/selinux/config
SELINUX=permissive
  • 在kubernetes所有节点上设置iptables参数,否则kubeadm init会提示错误
$ vi /etc/sysctl.d/k8s.conf
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables = 1
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables = 1
  • 在kubernetes所有节点上重启主机
$ reboot 

返回目录

kubernetes安装

kubernetes相关服务安装

  • 在kubernetes所有节点上验证SELINUX模式,必须保证SELINUX为permissive模式,否则kubernetes启动会出现各种异常
$ getenforce
Permissive
  • 在kubernetes所有节点上安装并启动kubernetes
$ yum install -y docker kubelet kubeadm kubernetes-cni $ systemctl enable docker && systemctl start docker $ systemctl enable kubelet && systemctl start kubelet 

返回目录

docker镜像导入

  • 在kubernetes所有节点上导入docker镜像
$ docker load -i /root/kubeadm-ha/docker-images/etcd-amd64 $ docker load -i /root/kubeadm-ha/docker-images/flannel $ docker load -i /root/kubeadm-ha/docker-images/heapster-amd64 $ docker load -i /root/kubeadm-ha/docker-images/heapster-grafana-amd64 $ docker load -i /root/kubeadm-ha/docker-images/heapster-influxdb-amd64 $ docker load -i /root/kubeadm-ha/docker-images/k8s-dns-dnsmasq-nanny-amd64 $ docker load -i /root/kubeadm-ha/docker-images/k8s-dns-kube-dns-amd64 $ docker load -i /root/kubeadm-ha/docker-images/k8s-dns-sidecar-amd64 $ docker load -i /root/kubeadm-ha/docker-images/kube-apiserver-amd64 $ docker load -i /root/kubeadm-ha/docker-images/kube-controller-manager-amd64 $ docker load -i /root/kubeadm-ha/docker-images/kube-proxy-amd64 $ docker load -i /root/kubeadm-ha/docker-images/kubernetes-dashboard-amd64 $ docker load -i /root/kubeadm-ha/docker-images/kube-scheduler-amd64 $ docker load -i /root/kubeadm-ha/docker-images/pause-amd64 $ docker load -i /root/kubeadm-ha/docker-images/nginx 
$ docker images
REPOSITORY TAG IMAGE ID CREATED SIZE
gcr.io/google_containers/kube-apiserver-amd64 v1.6.4 4e3810a19a64 5 weeks ago 150.6 MB
gcr.io/google_containers/kube-proxy-amd64 v1.6.4 e073a55c288b 5 weeks ago 109.2 MB
gcr.io/google_containers/kube-controller-manager-amd64 v1.6.4 0ea16a85ac34 5 weeks ago 132.8 MB
gcr.io/google_containers/kube-scheduler-amd64 v1.6.4 1fab9be555e1 5 weeks ago 76.75 MB
gcr.io/google_containers/kubernetes-dashboard-amd64 v1.6.1 71dfe833ce74 6 weeks ago 134.4 MB
quay.io/coreos/flannel v0.7.1-amd64 cd4ae0be5e1b 10 weeks ago 77.76 MB
gcr.io/google_containers/heapster-amd64 v1.3.0 f9d33bedfed3 3 months ago 68.11 MB
gcr.io/google_containers/k8s-dns-sidecar-amd64 1.14.1 fc5e302d8309 4 months ago 44.52 MB
gcr.io/google_containers/k8s-dns-kube-dns-amd64 1.14.1 f8363dbf447b 4 months ago 52.36 MB
gcr.io/google_containers/k8s-dns-dnsmasq-nanny-amd64 1.14.1 1091847716ec 4 months ago 44.84 MB
gcr.io/google_containers/etcd-amd64 3.0.17 243830dae7dd 4 months ago 168.9 MB
gcr.io/google_containers/heapster-grafana-amd64 v4.0.2 a1956d2a1a16 5 months ago 131.5 MB
gcr.io/google_containers/heapster-influxdb-amd64 v1.1.1 d3fccbedd180 5 months ago 11.59 MB
nginx latest 01f818af747d 6 months ago 181.6 MB
gcr.io/google_containers/pause-amd64 3.0 99e59f495ffa 14 months ago 746.9 kB

返回目录

第一台master初始化

独立etcd集群部署

  • 在k8s-master1节点上以docker方式启动etcd集群
$ docker stop etcd && docker rm etcd
$ rm -rf /var/lib/etcd-cluster
$ mkdir -p /var/lib/etcd-cluster
$ docker run -d \
--restart always \
-v /etc/ssl/certs:/etc/ssl/certs \
-v /var/lib/etcd-cluster:/var/lib/etcd \
-p 4001:4001 \
-p 2380:2380 \
-p 2379:2379 \
--name etcd \
gcr.io/google_containers/etcd-amd64:3.0.17 \
etcd --name=etcd0 \ --advertise-client-urls=http://192.168.60.71:2379,http://192.168.60.71:4001 \ --listen-client-urls=http://0.0.0.0:2379,http://0.0.0.0:4001 \ --initial-advertise-peer-urls=http://192.168.60.71:2380 \ --listen-peer-urls=http://0.0.0.0:2380 \ --initial-cluster-token=9477af68bbee1b9ae037d6fd9e7efefd \ --initial-cluster=etcd0=http://192.168.60.71:2380,etcd1=http://192.168.60.72:2380,etcd2=http://192.168.60.73:2380 \ --initial-cluster-state=new \ --auto-tls \ --peer-auto-tls \ --data-dir=/var/lib/etcd 
  • 在k8s-master2节点上以docker方式启动etcd集群
$ docker stop etcd && docker rm etcd
$ rm -rf /var/lib/etcd-cluster
$ mkdir -p /var/lib/etcd-cluster
$ docker run -d \
--restart always \
-v /etc/ssl/certs:/etc/ssl/certs \
-v /var/lib/etcd-cluster:/var/lib/etcd \
-p 4001:4001 \
-p 2380:2380 \
-p 2379:2379 \
--name etcd \
gcr.io/google_containers/etcd-amd64:3.0.17 \
etcd --name=etcd1 \ --advertise-client-urls=http://192.168.60.72:2379,http://192.168.60.72:4001 \ --listen-client-urls=http://0.0.0.0:2379,http://0.0.0.0:4001 \ --initial-advertise-peer-urls=http://192.168.60.72:2380 \ --listen-peer-urls=http://0.0.0.0:2380 \ --initial-cluster-token=9477af68bbee1b9ae037d6fd9e7efefd \ --initial-cluster=etcd0=http://192.168.60.71:2380,etcd1=http://192.168.60.72:2380,etcd2=http://192.168.60.73:2380 \ --initial-cluster-state=new \ --auto-tls \ --peer-auto-tls \ --data-dir=/var/lib/etcd 
  • 在k8s-master3节点上以docker方式启动etcd集群
$ docker stop etcd && docker rm etcd
$ rm -rf /var/lib/etcd-cluster
$ mkdir -p /var/lib/etcd-cluster
$ docker run -d \
--restart always \
-v /etc/ssl/certs:/etc/ssl/certs \
-v /var/lib/etcd-cluster:/var/lib/etcd \
-p 4001:4001 \
-p 2380:2380 \
-p 2379:2379 \
--name etcd \
gcr.io/google_containers/etcd-amd64:3.0.17 \
etcd --name=etcd2 \ --advertise-client-urls=http://192.168.60.73:2379,http://192.168.60.73:4001 \ --listen-client-urls=http://0.0.0.0:2379,http://0.0.0.0:4001 \ --initial-advertise-peer-urls=http://192.168.60.73:2380 \ --listen-peer-urls=http://0.0.0.0:2380 \ --initial-cluster-token=9477af68bbee1b9ae037d6fd9e7efefd \ --initial-cluster=etcd0=http://192.168.60.71:2380,etcd1=http://192.168.60.72:2380,etcd2=http://192.168.60.73:2380 \ --initial-cluster-state=new \ --auto-tls \ --peer-auto-tls \ --data-dir=/var/lib/etcd 
  • 在k8s-master1、k8s-master2、k8s-master3上检查etcd启动状态
$ docker exec -ti etcd ash

$ etcdctl member list
1a32c2d3f1abcad0: name=etcd2 peerURLs=http://192.168.60.73:2380 clientURLs=http://192.168.60.73:2379,http://192.168.60.73:4001 isLeader=false 1da4f4e8b839cb79: name=etcd1 peerURLs=http://192.168.60.72:2380 clientURLs=http://192.168.60.72:2379,http://192.168.60.72:4001 isLeader=false 4238bcb92d7f2617: name=etcd0 peerURLs=http://192.168.60.71:2380 clientURLs=http://192.168.60.71:2379,http://192.168.60.71:4001 isLeader=true

$ etcdctl cluster-health
member 1a32c2d3f1abcad0 is healthy: got healthy result from http://192.168.60.73:2379
member 1da4f4e8b839cb79 is healthy: got healthy result from http://192.168.60.72:2379
member 4238bcb92d7f2617 is healthy: got healthy result from http://192.168.60.71:2379
cluster is healthy

$ exit

返回目录

kubeadm初始化

  • 在k8s-master1上修改kubeadm-init.yaml文件,设置etcd.endpoints的${HOST_IP}为k8s-master1、k8s-master2、k8s-master3的IP地址
$ vi /root/kubeadm-ha/kubeadm-init.yaml 
apiVersion: kubeadm.k8s.io/v1alpha1 kind: MasterConfiguration kubernetesVersion: v1.6.4 networking:
 podSubnet: 10.244.0.0/16
etcd:
 endpoints:
 - http://192.168.60.71:2379
 - http://192.168.60.72:2379
 - http://192.168.60.73:2379
  • 如果使用kubeadm初始化集群,启动过程可能会卡在以下位置,那么可能是因为cgroup-driver参数与docker的不一致引起
  • [apiclient] Created API client, waiting for the control plane to become ready
  • journalctl -t kubelet -S '2017-06-08'查看日志,发现如下错误
  • error: failed to run Kubelet: failed to create kubelet: misconfiguration: kubelet cgroup driver: "systemd"
  • 需要修改KUBELET_CGROUP_ARGS=--cgroup-driver=systemd为KUBELET_CGROUP_ARGS=--cgroup-driver=cgroupfs
$ vi /etc/systemd/system/kubelet.service.d/10-kubeadm.conf #Environment="KUBELET_CGROUP_ARGS=--cgroup-driver=systemd"
Environment="KUBELET_CGROUP_ARGS=--cgroup-driver=cgroupfs"
  • 在k8s-master1上使用kubeadm初始化kubernetes集群,连接外部etcd集群
$ kubeadm init --config=/root/kubeadm-ha/kubeadm-init.yaml 
  • 在k8s-master1上设置kubectl的环境变量KUBECONFIG,连接kubelet
$ vi ~/.bashrc
export KUBECONFIG=/etc/kubernetes/admin.conf

$ source ~/.bashrc 

返回目录

flannel网络组件安装

  • 在k8s-master1上安装flannel pod网络组件,必须安装网络组件,否则kube-dns pod会一直处于ContainerCreating
$ kubectl create -f /root/kubeadm-ha/kube-flannel
clusterrole "flannel" created
clusterrolebinding "flannel" created
serviceaccount "flannel" created
configmap "kube-flannel-cfg" created
daemonset "kube-flannel-ds" created
  • 在k8s-master1上验证kube-dns成功启动,大概等待3分钟,验证所有pods的状态为Running
$ kubectl get pods --all-namespaces -o wide
NAMESPACE NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE IP NODE
kube-system kube-apiserver-k8s-master1 1/1 Running 0 3m 192.168.60.71 k8s-master1
kube-system kube-controller-manager-k8s-master1 1/1 Running 0 3m 192.168.60.71 k8s-master1
kube-system kube-dns-3913472980-k9mt6 3/3 Running 0 4m 10.244.0.104 k8s-master1
kube-system kube-flannel-ds-3hhjd 2/2 Running 0 1m 192.168.60.71 k8s-master1
kube-system kube-proxy-rzq3t 1/1 Running 0 4m 192.168.60.71 k8s-master1
kube-system kube-scheduler-k8s-master1 1/1 Running 0 3m 192.168.60.71 k8s-master1

返回目录

dashboard组件安装

  • 在k8s-master1上安装dashboard组件
$ kubectl create -f /root/kubeadm-ha/kube-dashboard/
serviceaccount "kubernetes-dashboard" created
clusterrolebinding "kubernetes-dashboard" created
deployment "kubernetes-dashboard" created
service "kubernetes-dashboard" created
  • 在k8s-master1上启动proxy,映射地址到0.0.0.0
$ kubectl proxy --address='0.0.0.0' & 
  • 在本机MacOSX上访问dashboard地址,验证dashboard成功启动
http://k8s-master1:30000 
dashboard

返回目录

heapster组件安装

  • 在k8s-master1上允许在master上部署pod,否则heapster会无法部署
$ kubectl taint nodes --all node-role.kubernetes.io/master-
node "k8s-master1" tainted
  • 在k8s-master1上安装heapster组件,监控性能
$ kubectl create -f /root/kubeadm-ha/kube-heapster 
  • 在k8s-master1上重启docker以及kubelet服务,让heapster在dashboard上生效显示
$ systemctl restart docker kubelet 
  • 在k8s-master上检查pods状态
$ kubectl get all --all-namespaces -o wide
NAMESPACE NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE IP NODE
kube-system heapster-783524908-kn6jd 1/1 Running 1 9m 10.244.0.111 k8s-master1
kube-system kube-apiserver-k8s-master1 1/1 Running 1 15m 192.168.60.71 k8s-master1
kube-system kube-controller-manager-k8s-master1 1/1 Running 1 15m 192.168.60.71 k8s-master1
kube-system kube-dns-3913472980-k9mt6 3/3 Running 3 16m 10.244.0.110 k8s-master1
kube-system kube-flannel-ds-3hhjd 2/2 Running 3 13m 192.168.60.71 k8s-master1
kube-system kube-proxy-rzq3t 1/1 Running 1 16m 192.168.60.71 k8s-master1
kube-system kube-scheduler-k8s-master1 1/1 Running 1 15m 192.168.60.71 k8s-master1
kube-system kubernetes-dashboard-2039414953-d46vw 1/1 Running 1 11m 10.244.0.109 k8s-master1
kube-system monitoring-grafana-3975459543-8l94z 1/1 Running 1 9m 10.244.0.112 k8s-master1
kube-system monitoring-influxdb-3480804314-72ltf 1/1 Running 1 9m 10.244.0.113 k8s-master1
  • 在本机MacOSX上访问dashboard地址,验证heapster成功启动,查看Pods的CPU以及Memory信息是否正常呈现
http://k8s-master1:30000 
heapster
  • 至此,第一台master成功安装,并已经完成flannel、dashboard、heapster的部署

返回目录

master集群高可用设置

复制配置

  • 在k8s-master1上把/etc/kubernetes/复制到k8s-master2、k8s-master3
scp -r /etc/kubernetes/ k8s-master2:/etc/
scp -r /etc/kubernetes/ k8s-master3:/etc/ 
  • 在k8s-master2、k8s-master3上重启kubelet服务,并检查kubelet服务状态为active (running)
$ systemctl daemon-reload && systemctl restart kubelet

$ systemctl status kubelet
● kubelet.service - kubelet: The Kubernetes Node Agent
 Loaded: loaded (/etc/systemd/system/kubelet.service; enabled; vendor preset: disabled)
 Drop-In: /etc/systemd/system/kubelet.service.d
 └─10-kubeadm.conf
 Active: active (running) since Tue 2017-06-27 16:24:22 CST; 1 day 17h ago
 Docs: http://kubernetes.io/docs/
 Main PID: 2780 (kubelet)
 Memory: 92.9M
 CGroup: /system.slice/kubelet.service
 ├─2780 /usr/bin/kubelet --kubeconfig=/etc/kubernetes/kubelet.conf --require-...
 └─2811 journalctl -k -f
  • 在k8s-master2、k8s-master3上设置kubectl的环境变量KUBECONFIG,连接kubelet
$ vi ~/.bashrc
export KUBECONFIG=/etc/kubernetes/admin.conf

$ source ~/.bashrc 
  • 在k8s-master2、k8s-master3检测节点状态,发现节点已经加进来
$ kubectl get nodes -o wide
NAME STATUS AGE VERSION EXTERNAL-IP OS-IMAGE KERNEL-VERSION
k8s-master1 Ready 26m v1.6.4 <none> CentOS Linux 7 (Core) 3.10.0-514.6.1.el7.x86_64
k8s-master2 Ready 2m v1.6.4 <none> CentOS Linux 7 (Core) 3.10.0-514.21.1.el7.x86_64
k8s-master3 Ready 2m v1.6.4 <none> CentOS Linux 7 (Core) 3.10.0-514.21.1.el7.x86_64
  • 在k8s-master2、k8s-master3上修改kube-apiserver.yaml的配置,${HOST_IP}改为本机IP
$ vi /etc/kubernetes/manifests/kube-apiserver.yaml
 - --advertise-address=${HOST_IP}
  • 在k8s-master2和k8s-master3上的修改kubelet.conf设置,${HOST_IP}改为本机IP
$ vi /etc/kubernetes/kubelet.conf
server: https://${HOST_IP}:6443
  • 在k8s-master2和k8s-master3上的重启服务
$ systemctl daemon-reload && systemctl restart docker kubelet 

返回目录

创建证书

  • 在k8s-master2和k8s-master3上修改kubelet.conf后,由于kubelet.conf配置的crt和key与本机IP地址不一致的情况,kubelet服务会异常退出,crt和key必须重新制作。查看apiserver.crt的签名信息,发现IP Address以及DNS绑定了k8s-master1,必须进行相应修改。
openssl x509 -noout -text -in /etc/kubernetes/pki/apiserver.crt
Certificate: Data: Version: 3 (0x2)
 Serial Number: 9486057293403496063 (0x83a53ed95c519e7f)
 Signature Algorithm: sha1WithRSAEncryption
 Issuer: CN=kubernetes
 Validity
 Not Before: Jun 22 16:22:44 2017 GMT
 Not After : Jun 22 16:22:44 2018 GMT
 Subject: CN=kube-apiserver,
 Subject Public Key Info:
 Public Key Algorithm: rsaEncryption
 Public-Key: (2048 bit)
 Modulus: d0:10:4a:3b:c4:62:5d:ae:f8:f1:16:48:b3:77:6b: 53:4b
 Exponent: 65537 (0x10001)
 X509v3 extensions:
 X509v3 Subject Alternative Name: DNS:k8s-master1, DNS:kubernetes, DNS:kubernetes.default, DNS:kubernetes.default.svc, DNS:kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local, IP Address:10.96.0.1, IP Address:192.168.60.71
 Signature Algorithm: sha1WithRSAEncryption
 dd:68:16:f9:11:be:c3:3c:be:89:9f:14:60:6b:e0:47:c7:91:
 9e:78:ab:ce 
  • 在k8s-master1、k8s-master2、k8s-master3上使用ca.key和ca.crt制作apiserver.crt和apiserver.key
$ mkdir -p /etc/kubernetes/pki-local 
$ cd /etc/kubernetes/pki-local 
  • 在k8s-master1、k8s-master2、k8s-master3上生成2048位的密钥对
$ openssl genrsa -out apiserver.key 2048 
  • 在k8s-master1、k8s-master2、k8s-master3上生成证书签署请求文件
$ openssl req -new -key apiserver.key -subj "/CN=kube-apiserver," -out apiserver.csr 
  • 在k8s-master1、k8s-master2、k8s-master3上编辑apiserver.ext文件,${HOST_NAME}修改为本机主机名,${HOST_IP}修改为本机IP地址,${VIRTUAL_IP}修改为keepalived的虚拟IP(192.168.60.80)
$ vi apiserver.ext
subjectAltName = DNS:${HOST_NAME},DNS:kubernetes,DNS:kubernetes.default,DNS:kubernetes.default.svc, DNS:kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local, IP:10.96.0.1, IP:${HOST_IP}, IP:${VIRTUAL_IP}
  • 在k8s-master1、k8s-master2、k8s-master3上使用ca.key和ca.crt签署上述请求
$ openssl x509 -req -in apiserver.csr -CA /etc/kubernetes/pki/ca.crt -CAkey /etc/kubernetes/pki/ca.key -CAcreateserial -out apiserver.crt -days 365 -extfile /etc/kubernetes/pki-local/apiserver.ext
  • 在k8s-master1、k8s-master2、k8s-master3上查看新生成的证书:
$ openssl x509 -noout -text -in apiserver.crt
Certificate: Data: Version: 3 (0x2)
 Serial Number: 9486057293403496063 (0x83a53ed95c519e7f)
 Signature Algorithm: sha1WithRSAEncryption
 Issuer: CN=kubernetes
 Validity
 Not Before: Jun 22 16:22:44 2017 GMT
 Not After : Jun 22 16:22:44 2018 GMT
 Subject: CN=kube-apiserver,
 Subject Public Key Info:
 Public Key Algorithm: rsaEncryption
 Public-Key: (2048 bit)
 Modulus: d0:10:4a:3b:c4:62:5d:ae:f8:f1:16:48:b3:77:6b: 53:4b
 Exponent: 65537 (0x10001)
 X509v3 extensions:
 X509v3 Subject Alternative Name: DNS:k8s-master3, DNS:kubernetes, DNS:kubernetes.default, DNS:kubernetes.default.svc, DNS:kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local, IP Address:10.96.0.1, IP Address:192.168.60.73, IP Address:192.168.60.80
 Signature Algorithm: sha1WithRSAEncryption
 dd:68:16:f9:11:be:c3:3c:be:89:9f:14:60:6b:e0:47:c7:91:
 9e:78:ab:ce 
  • 在k8s-master1、k8s-master2、k8s-master3上把apiserver.crt和apiserver.key文件复制到/etc/kubernetes/pki目录
$ cp apiserver.crt apiserver.key /etc/kubernetes/pki/ 

返回目录

修改配置

  • 在k8s-master2和k8s-master3上修改admin.conf,${HOST_IP}修改为本机IP地址
$ vi /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf
 server: https://${HOST_IP}:6443
  • 在k8s-master2和k8s-master3上修改controller-manager.conf,${HOST_IP}修改为本机IP地址
$ vi /etc/kubernetes/controller-manager.conf
 server: https://${HOST_IP}:6443
  • 在k8s-master2和k8s-master3上修改scheduler.conf,${HOST_IP}修改为本机IP地址
$ vi /etc/kubernetes/scheduler.conf
 server: https://${HOST_IP}:6443
  • 在k8s-master1、k8s-master2、k8s-master3上重启所有服务
$ systemctl daemon-reload && systemctl restart docker kubelet 

返回目录

验证高可用安装

  • 在k8s-master1、k8s-master2、k8s-master3任意节点上检测服务启动情况,发现apiserver、controller-manager、kube-scheduler、proxy、flannel已经在k8s-master1、k8s-master2、k8s-master3成功启动
$ kubectl get pod --all-namespaces -o wide | grep k8s-master2
kube-system kube-apiserver-k8s-master2 1/1 Running 1 55s 192.168.60.72 k8s-master2
kube-system kube-controller-manager-k8s-master2 1/1 Running 2 18m 192.168.60.72 k8s-master2
kube-system kube-flannel-ds-t8gkh 2/2 Running 4 18m 192.168.60.72 k8s-master2
kube-system kube-proxy-bpgqw 1/1 Running 1 18m 192.168.60.72 k8s-master2
kube-system kube-scheduler-k8s-master2 1/1 Running 2 18m 192.168.60.72 k8s-master2

$ kubectl get pod --all-namespaces -o wide | grep k8s-master3
kube-system kube-apiserver-k8s-master3 1/1 Running 1 1m 192.168.60.73 k8s-master3
kube-system kube-controller-manager-k8s-master3 1/1 Running 2 18m 192.168.60.73 k8s-master3
kube-system kube-flannel-ds-tmqmx 2/2 Running 4 18m 192.168.60.73 k8s-master3
kube-system kube-proxy-4stg3 1/1 Running 1 18m 192.168.60.73 k8s-master3
kube-system kube-scheduler-k8s-master3 1/1 Running 2 18m 192.168.60.73 k8s-master3
  • 在k8s-master1、k8s-master2、k8s-master3任意节点上通过kubectl logs检查各个controller-manager和scheduler的leader election结果,可以发现只有一个节点有效表示选举正常
$ kubectl logs -n kube-system kube-controller-manager-k8s-master1 $ kubectl logs -n kube-system kube-controller-manager-k8s-master2 $ kubectl logs -n kube-system kube-controller-manager-k8s-master3 
$ kubectl logs -n kube-system kube-scheduler-k8s-master1 $ kubectl logs -n kube-system kube-scheduler-k8s-master2 $ kubectl logs -n kube-system kube-scheduler-k8s-master3 
  • 在k8s-master1、k8s-master2、k8s-master3任意节点上查看deployment的情况
$ kubectl get deploy --all-namespaces
NAMESPACE NAME DESIRED CURRENT UP-TO-DATE AVAILABLE AGE
kube-system heapster 1 1 1 1 41m
kube-system kube-dns 1 1 1 1 48m
kube-system kubernetes-dashboard 1 1 1 1 43m
kube-system monitoring-grafana 1 1 1 1 41m
kube-system monitoring-influxdb 1 1 1 1 41m 
  • 在k8s-master1、k8s-master2、k8s-master3任意节点上把kubernetes-dashboard、kube-dns、 scale up成replicas=3,保证各个master节点上都有运行
$ kubectl scale --replicas=3 -n kube-system deployment/kube-dns $ kubectl get pods --all-namespaces -o wide| grep kube-dns 
$ kubectl scale --replicas=3 -n kube-system deployment/kubernetes-dashboard $ kubectl get pods --all-namespaces -o wide| grep kubernetes-dashboard 
$ kubectl scale --replicas=3 -n kube-system deployment/heapster $ kubectl get pods --all-namespaces -o wide| grep heapster 
$ kubectl scale --replicas=3 -n kube-system deployment/monitoring-grafana $ kubectl get pods --all-namespaces -o wide| grep monitoring-grafana 
$ kubectl scale --replicas=3 -n kube-system deployment/monitoring-influxdb $ kubectl get pods --all-namespaces -o wide| grep monitoring-influxdb 

返回目录

keepalived安装配置

  • 在k8s-master、k8s-master2、k8s-master3上安装keepalived
$ yum install -y keepalived 
$ systemctl enable keepalived && systemctl restart keepalived 
  • 在k8s-master1、k8s-master2、k8s-master3上备份keepalived配置文件
$ mv /etc/keepalived/keepalived.conf /etc/keepalived/keepalived.conf.bak 
  • 在k8s-master1、k8s-master2、k8s-master3上设置apiserver监控脚本,当apiserver检测失败的时候关闭keepalived服务,转移虚拟IP地址
$ vi /etc/keepalived/check_apiserver.sh
#!/bin/bash
err=0
for k in $( seq 1 10 )
do
 check_code=$(ps -ef|grep kube-apiserver | wc -l)
 if [ "$check_code" = "1" ]; then
 err=$(expr $err + 1)
 sleep 5
 continue else
 err=0
 break fi done if [ "$err" != "0" ]; then echo "systemctl stop keepalived"
 /usr/bin/systemctl stop keepalived
 exit 1
else exit 0
fi

chmod a+x /etc/keepalived/check_apiserver.sh
  • 在k8s-master1、k8s-master2、k8s-master3上查看接口名字
$ ip a | grep 192.168.60 
  • 在k8s-master1、k8s-master2、k8s-master3上设置keepalived,参数说明如下:
  • state ${STATE}:为MASTER或者BACKUP,只能有一个MASTER
  • interface ${INTERFACE_NAME}:为本机的需要绑定的接口名字(通过上边的ip a命令查看)
  • mcast_src_ip ${HOST_IP}:为本机的IP地址
  • priority ${PRIORITY}:为优先级,例如102、101、100,优先级越高越容易选择为MASTER,优先级不能一样
  • ${VIRTUAL_IP}:为虚拟的IP地址,这里设置为192.168.60.80
$ vi /etc/keepalived/keepalived.conf
! Configuration File for keepalived
global_defs {
 router_id LVS_DEVEL
}
vrrp_script chk_apiserver {
 script "/etc/keepalived/check_apiserver.sh"
 interval 2
 weight -5
 fall 3 
 rise 2
}
vrrp_instance VI_1 {
 state ${STATE}
 interface ${INTERFACE_NAME}
 mcast_src_ip ${HOST_IP}
 virtual_router_id 51
 priority ${PRIORITY}
 advert_int 2
 authentication {
 auth_type PASS
 auth_pass 4be37dc3b4c90194d1600c483e10ad1d
 }
 virtual_ipaddress {
 ${VIRTUAL_IP}
 }
 track_script {
 chk_apiserver
 }
}
  • 在k8s-master1、k8s-master2、k8s-master3上重启keepalived服务,检测虚拟IP地址是否生效
$ systemctl restart keepalived $ ping 192.168.60.80 

返回目录

nginx负载均衡配置

  • 在k8s-master1、k8s-master2、k8s-master3上修改nginx-default.conf设置,${HOST_IP}对应k8s-master1、k8s-master2、k8s-master3的地址。通过nginx把访问apiserver的6443端口负载均衡到8433端口上
$ vi /root/kubeadm-ha/nginx-default.conf
stream {
 upstream apiserver {
 server ${HOST_IP}:6443 weight=5 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
 server ${HOST_IP}:6443 weight=5 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
 server ${HOST_IP}:6443 weight=5 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
 }

 server {
 listen 8443;
 proxy_connect_timeout 1s;
 proxy_timeout 3s;
 proxy_pass apiserver;
 }
}
  • 在k8s-master1、k8s-master2、k8s-master3上启动nginx容器
$ docker run -d -p 8443:8443 \
--name nginx-lb \ --restart always \ -v /root/kubeadm-ha/nginx-default.conf:/etc/nginx/nginx.conf \
nginx
  • 在k8s-master1、k8s-master2、k8s-master3上检测keepalived服务的虚拟IP地址指向
$ curl -L 192.168.60.80:8443 | wc -l  % Total % Received % Xferd Average Speed Time Time Time Current
 Dload Upload Total Spent Left Speed
100 14 0 14 0 0 18324 0 --:--:-- --:--:-- --:--:-- 14000
1
  • 业务恢复后务必重启keepalived,否则keepalived会处于关闭状态
$ systemctl restart keepalived 
  • 在k8s-master1、k8s-master2、k8s-master3上查看keeplived日志,有以下输出表示当前虚拟IP地址绑定的主机
$ systemctl status keepalived -l
VRRP_Instance(VI_1) Sending gratuitous ARPs on ens160 for 192.168.60.80

返回目录

kube-proxy配置

  • 在k8s-master1上设置kube-proxy使用keepalived的虚拟IP地址,避免k8s-master1异常的时候所有节点的kube-proxy连接不上
$ kubectl get -n kube-system configmap
NAME DATA AGE
extension-apiserver-authentication 6 4h
kube-flannel-cfg 2 4h
kube-proxy 1 4h
  • 在k8s-master1上修改configmap/kube-proxy的server指向keepalived的虚拟IP地址
$ kubectl edit -n kube-system configmap/kube-proxy
 server: https://192.168.60.80:8443
  • 在k8s-master1上查看configmap/kube-proxy设置情况
$ kubectl get -n kube-system configmap/kube-proxy -o yaml 
  • 在k8s-master1上删除所有kube-proxy的pod,让proxy重建
kubectl get pods --all-namespaces -o wide | grep proxy
  • 在k8s-master1、k8s-master2、k8s-master3上重启docker kubelet keepalived服务
$ systemctl restart docker kubelet keepalived 

返回目录

验证master集群高可用

  • 在k8s-master1上检查各个节点pod的启动状态,每个上都成功启动heapster、kube-apiserver、kube-controller-manager、kube-dns、kube-flannel、kube-proxy、kube-scheduler、kubernetes-dashboard、monitoring-grafana、monitoring-influxdb。并且所有pod都处于Running状态表示正常
$ kubectl get pods --all-namespaces -o wide | grep k8s-master1 
$ kubectl get pods --all-namespaces -o wide | grep k8s-master2 
$ kubectl get pods --all-namespaces -o wide | grep k8s-master3 

返回目录

node节点加入高可用集群设置

kubeadm加入高可用集群

  • 在k8s-master1上禁止在所有master节点上发布应用
$ kubectl patch node k8s-master1 -p '{"spec":{"unschedulable":true}}' 
$ kubectl patch node k8s-master2 -p '{"spec":{"unschedulable":true}}' 
$ kubectl patch node k8s-master3 -p '{"spec":{"unschedulable":true}}' 
  • 在k8s-master1上查看集群的token
$ kubeadm token list
TOKEN TTL EXPIRES USAGES DESCRIPTION
xxxxxx.yyyyyy <forever> <never> authentication,signing The default bootstrap token generated by 'kubeadm init' 
  • 在k8s-node1 ~ k8s-node8上,${TOKEN}为k8s-master1上显示的token,${VIRTUAL_IP}为keepalived的虚拟IP地址192.168.60.80
$ kubeadm join --token ${TOKEN} ${VIRTUAL_IP}:8443 

返回目录

部署应用验证集群

  • 在k8s-node1 ~ k8s-node8上查看kubelet状态,kubelet状态为active (running)表示kubelet服务正常启动
$ systemctl status kubelet
● kubelet.service - kubelet: The Kubernetes Node Agent
 Loaded: loaded (/etc/systemd/system/kubelet.service; enabled; vendor preset: disabled)
 Drop-In: /etc/systemd/system/kubelet.service.d
 └─10-kubeadm.conf
 Active: active (running) since Tue 2017-06-27 16:23:43 CST; 1 day 18h ago
 Docs: http://kubernetes.io/docs/
 Main PID: 1146 (kubelet)
 Memory: 204.9M
 CGroup: /system.slice/kubelet.service
 ├─ 1146 /usr/bin/kubelet --kubeconfig=/etc/kubernetes/kubelet.conf --require...
 ├─ 2553 journalctl -k -f
 ├─ 4988 /usr/sbin/glusterfs --log-level=ERROR --log-file=/var/lib/kubelet/pl...
 └─14720 /usr/sbin/glusterfs --log-level=ERROR --log-file=/var/lib/kubelet/pl...
  • 在k8s-master1上检查各个节点状态,发现所有k8s-nodes节点成功加入
$ kubectl get nodes -o wide
NAME STATUS AGE VERSION
k8s-master1 Ready,SchedulingDisabled 5h v1.6.4
k8s-master2 Ready,SchedulingDisabled 4h v1.6.4
k8s-master3 Ready,SchedulingDisabled 4h v1.6.4
k8s-node1 Ready 6m v1.6.4
k8s-node2 Ready 4m v1.6.4
k8s-node3 Ready 4m v1.6.4
k8s-node4 Ready 3m v1.6.4
k8s-node5 Ready 3m v1.6.4
k8s-node6 Ready 3m v1.6.4
k8s-node7 Ready 3m v1.6.4
k8s-node8 Ready 3m v1.6.4
  • 在k8s-master1上测试部署nginx服务,nginx服务成功部署到k8s-node5上
$ kubectl run nginx --image=nginx --port=80
deployment "nginx" created

$ kubectl get pod -o wide -l=run=nginx
NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE IP NODE
nginx-2662403697-pbmwt 1/1 Running 0 5m 10.244.7.6 k8s-node5
  • 在k8s-master1让nginx服务外部可见
$ kubectl expose deployment nginx --port=80 --target-port=80 --type=NodePort
service "nginx" exposed

$ kubectl get svc -l=run=nginx
NAME CLUSTER-IP EXTERNAL-IP PORT(S) AGE
nginx 10.105.151.69 <nodes> 80:31639/TCP 43s

$ curl k8s-master2:31639
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <title>Welcome to nginx!</title> <style> body {
 width: 35em;
 margin: 0 auto;
 font-family: Tahoma, Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;
 }
</style> </head> <body> <h1>Welcome to nginx!</h1> <p>If you see this page, the nginx web server is successfully installed and
working. Further configuration is required.</p> <p>For online documentation and support please refer to
<a href="http://nginx.org/">nginx.org</a>.<br/>
Commercial support is available at
<a href="http://nginx.com/">nginx.com</a>.</p> <p><em>Thank you for using nginx.</em></p> </body> </html> 
  • 至此,kubernetes高可用集群成功部署
本文转移开源中国-基于kubeadm的kubernetes高可用集群部署

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