Spring Boot 快速入门(一)

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Spring Boot 快速入门(一)

luckyboys 2016-12-08 17:12:00 浏览375
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简介 

相信很多人都接触spring框架很长时间了,每次搭建spring框架的时候都需要配置好多的jar、xml,做很多繁琐重复的配置,稍微不留神就会出现各种各样的问题,每次调试真的是香菇、蓝瘦啊。

spring boot的出现帮助我们彻底解决了这些jar的依赖,只需要很少的配置就可以完成我们的开发工作,我们可以把自己的应用打包成jar,使用java -jar来运行spring web应用,spring boot集成了很多的web容器,后面都会慢慢讲到这些,今天我们就开始使用spring boot完成一个最简单的web应用。

使用maven构建项目

spring官网提供了了一个非常方便的地址来帮助我们创建spring boot项目,http://start.spring.io/ ,输入相关参数点击 Generate Project 即可下载自动生成的压缩包。

该项目采用maven构建,加压后直接使用自己的IDE导入maven工程即可

1,打开pom文件就可以看到新的项目比传统的spring mvc项目的pom文件接口清晰了很多

  

1         <parent>
2         <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
3         <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-parent</artifactId>
4         <version>1.4.1.RELEASE</version>
5     </parent>

第一个地方是多了上面的代码,这个spring boot会自动帮我门引入一些约定的配置,查看源码得知

  1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?><project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
  2     <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
  3     <parent>
  4         <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
  5         <artifactId>spring-boot-dependencies</artifactId>
  6         <version>1.4.1.RELEASE</version>
  7         <relativePath>../../spring-boot-dependencies</relativePath>
  8     </parent>
  9     <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-parent</artifactId>
 10     <packaging>pom</packaging>
 11     <name>Spring Boot Starter Parent</name>
 12     <description>Parent pom providing dependency and plugin management for applications
 13         built with Maven</description>
 14     <url>http://projects.spring.io/spring-boot/</url>
 15     <organization>
 16         <name>Pivotal Software, Inc.</name>
 17         <url>http://www.spring.io</url>
 18     </organization>
 19     <properties>
 20         <java.version>1.6</java.version>
 21         <resource.delimiter>@</resource.delimiter> <!-- delimiter that doesn't clash with Spring ${} placeholders -->
 22         <project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding>
 23         <project.reporting.outputEncoding>UTF-8</project.reporting.outputEncoding>
 24         <maven.compiler.source>${java.version}</maven.compiler.source>
 25         <maven.compiler.target>${java.version}</maven.compiler.target>
 26     </properties>
 27     <dependencyManagement>
 28         <dependencies>
 29             <dependency>
 30                 <groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
 31                 <artifactId>spring-core</artifactId>
 32                 <version>${spring.version}</version>
 33                 <exclusions>
 34                     <exclusion>
 35                         <groupId>commons-logging</groupId>
 36                         <artifactId>commons-logging</artifactId>
 37                     </exclusion>
 38                 </exclusions>
 39             </dependency>
 40         </dependencies>
 41     </dependencyManagement>
 42     <build>
 43         <!-- Turn on filtering by default for application properties -->
 44         <resources>
 45             <resource>
 46                 <directory>${basedir}/src/main/resources</directory>
 47                 <filtering>true</filtering>
 48                 <includes>
 49                     <include>**/application*.yml</include>
 50                     <include>**/application*.properties</include>
 51                 </includes>
 52             </resource>
 53             <resource>
 54                 <directory>${basedir}/src/main/resources</directory>
 55                 <excludes>
 56                     <exclude>**/application*.yml</exclude>
 57                     <exclude>**/application*.properties</exclude>
 58                 </excludes>
 59             </resource>
 60         </resources>
 61         <pluginManagement>
 62             <plugins>
 63                 <!-- Apply more sensible defaults for user projects -->
 64                 <plugin>
 65                     <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
 66                     <artifactId>maven-failsafe-plugin</artifactId>
 67                     <executions>
 68                         <execution>
 69                             <goals>
 70                                 <goal>integration-test</goal>
 71                                 <goal>verify</goal>
 72                             </goals>
 73                         </execution>
 74                     </executions>
 75                 </plugin>
 76                 <plugin>
 77                     <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
 78                     <artifactId>maven-jar-plugin</artifactId>
 79                     <configuration>
 80                         <archive>
 81                             <manifest>
 82                                 <mainClass>${start-class}</mainClass>
 83                                 <addDefaultImplementationEntries>true</addDefaultImplementationEntries>
 84                             </manifest>
 85                         </archive>
 86                     </configuration>
 87                 </plugin>
 88                 <plugin>
 89                     <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
 90                     <artifactId>maven-surefire-plugin</artifactId>
 91                     <configuration>
 92                         <includes>
 93                             <include>**/*Tests.java</include>
 94                             <include>**/*Test.java</include>
 95                         </includes>
 96                         <excludes>
 97                             <exclude>**/Abstract*.java</exclude>
 98                         </excludes>
 99                     </configuration>
100                 </plugin>
101                 <plugin>
102                     <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
103                     <artifactId>maven-war-plugin</artifactId>
104                     <configuration>
105                         <failOnMissingWebXml>false</failOnMissingWebXml>
106                         <archive>
107                             <manifest>
108                                 <mainClass>${start-class}</mainClass>
109                                 <addDefaultImplementationEntries>true</addDefaultImplementationEntries>
110                             </manifest>
111                         </archive>
112                     </configuration>
113                 </plugin>
114                 <plugin>
115                     <groupId>org.codehaus.mojo</groupId>
116                     <artifactId>exec-maven-plugin</artifactId>
117                     <configuration>
118                         <mainClass>${start-class}</mainClass>
119                     </configuration>
120                 </plugin>
121                 <plugin>
122                     <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
123                     <artifactId>maven-resources-plugin</artifactId>
124                     <version>2.6</version>
125                     <configuration>
126                         <delimiters>
127                             <delimiter>${resource.delimiter}</delimiter>
128                         </delimiters>
129                         <useDefaultDelimiters>false</useDefaultDelimiters>
130                     </configuration>
131                 </plugin>
132                 <plugin>
133                     <groupId>pl.project13.maven</groupId>
134                     <artifactId>git-commit-id-plugin</artifactId>
135                     <version>2.1.11</version>
136                     <executions>
137                         <execution>
138                             <goals>
139                                 <goal>revision</goal>
140                             </goals>
141                         </execution>
142                     </executions>
143                     <configuration>
144                         <verbose>true</verbose>
145                         <dateFormat>yyyy-MM-dd'T'HH:mm:ssZ</dateFormat>
146                         <generateGitPropertiesFile>true</generateGitPropertiesFile>
147                         <generateGitPropertiesFilename>${project.build.outputDirectory}/git.properties</generateGitPropertiesFilename>
148                     </configuration>
149                 </plugin>
150                 <!-- Support our own plugin -->
151                 <plugin>
152                     <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
153                     <artifactId>spring-boot-maven-plugin</artifactId>
154                     <executions>
155                         <execution>
156                             <goals>
157                                 <goal>repackage</goal>
158                             </goals>
159                         </execution>
160                     </executions>
161                     <configuration>
162                         <mainClass>${start-class}</mainClass>
163                     </configuration>
164                 </plugin>
165                 <!-- Support shade packaging (if the user does not want to use our plugin) -->
166                 <plugin>
167                     <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
168                     <artifactId>maven-shade-plugin</artifactId>
169                     <dependencies>
170                         <dependency>
171                             <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
172                             <artifactId>spring-boot-maven-plugin</artifactId>
173                             <version>1.4.1.RELEASE</version>
174                         </dependency>
175                     </dependencies>
176                     <configuration>
177                         <keepDependenciesWithProvidedScope>true</keepDependenciesWithProvidedScope>
178                         <createDependencyReducedPom>true</createDependencyReducedPom>
179                         <filters>
180                             <filter>
181                                 <artifact>*:*</artifact>
182                                 <excludes>
183                                     <exclude>META-INF/*.SF</exclude>
184                                     <exclude>META-INF/*.DSA</exclude>
185                                     <exclude>META-INF/*.RSA</exclude>
186                                 </excludes>
187                             </filter>
188                         </filters>
189                     </configuration>
190                     <executions>
191                         <execution>
192                             <phase>package</phase>
193                             <goals>
194                                 <goal>shade</goal>
195                             </goals>
196                             <configuration>
197                                 <transformers>
198                                     <transformer implementation="org.apache.maven.plugins.shade.resource.AppendingTransformer">
199                                         <resource>META-INF/spring.handlers</resource>
200                                     </transformer>
201                                     <transformer implementation="org.springframework.boot.maven.PropertiesMergingResourceTransformer">
202                                         <resource>META-INF/spring.factories</resource>
203                                     </transformer>
204                                     <transformer implementation="org.apache.maven.plugins.shade.resource.AppendingTransformer">
205                                         <resource>META-INF/spring.schemas</resource>
206                                     </transformer>
207                                     <transformer implementation="org.apache.maven.plugins.shade.resource.ServicesResourceTransformer"/>
208                                     <transformer implementation="org.apache.maven.plugins.shade.resource.ManifestResourceTransformer">
209                                         <mainClass>${start-class}</mainClass>
210                                     </transformer>
211                                 </transformers>
212                             </configuration>
213                         </execution>
214                     </executions>
215                 </plugin>
216             </plugins>
217         </pluginManagement>
218     </build>
219 </project>
View Code

 

   spring boot默认帮我引入的jdk版本是1.6,如果需要改动,则在自己pom文件中直接重写<java.version>1.6</java.version>即可。

   还可以看到它已经帮我们引入了spring-core和commons-logging包

   继续往下看可以发现一些属性文件他也帮我定义好了规则,不需要我们自己在xml中定义了,已经一些maven插件的定义这里就不一一说明 ,具体插件是做什么用的,各位可以看下maven的相关知识。

第二个改变的地方是

 1   <dependency>
 2     <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
 3     <artifactId>spring-boot-starter</artifactId>
 4 </dependency>
 5 
 6 <dependency>
 7     <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
 8     <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
 9     <scope>test</scope>
10 </dependency>
11 
12 <dependency>
13     <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
14     <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
15 </dependency>  
spring-boot-starter:核心模块,包括自动配置支持、日志
spring-boot-starter-test :测试模块,包括JUnit、Hamcrest、Mockito
spring-boot-starter-web  :开发web项目依赖

代码编写

说了这么多的配置,来让我们创建第一个class吧
@Controller
@EnableAutoConfiguration
@RequestMapping("/ctr")
public class SampleController
{
    @RequestMapping("/getStr")
    @ResponseBody
    String home(){
        return "Hello World";
    }

    @RequestMapping("/info")
    @ResponseBody
    public Map<String,String> getInfo(){
        Map<String, String> map = new HashMap<>();
        map.put("name", "jack");
        return map;
    }

    
    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
        SpringApplication.run(SampleController.class,args);
    }
}

到此为止,我们的第一个spring 的web项目就结束了,直接运行main方法,浏览器中输入:http://127.0.0.1:8080/ctr/info 可以看到运行结果  {"name": "jack"}

怎么样,是不是很神奇,没有启动任何的web容器,只需要执行main方法就可以运行我们的web项目了,而且配置就这么简单任性。

 

开开心心编码,快快乐乐生活。

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