使用virtualenvwrapper模块管理python虚拟环境

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使用virtualenvwrapper模块管理python虚拟环境

任平生78 2018-07-12 16:28:00 浏览851
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1.pip安装virtualenvwrapper

[root@localhost ~]# pip install virtualenvwrapper               # 安装virtualenvwrapper
[root@localhost ~]# pip list | grep virtualenvwrapper
virtualenvwrapper (4.8.2)

2.配置环境变量

[root@localhost ~]# find / -name virtualenvwrapper.sh           # 查找virtualenvwrapper.sh所有的目录
/usr/bin/virtualenvwrapper.sh
[root@localhost ~]# mkdir .virtualenvs                          # 创建虚拟环境的存放目录
[root@localhost ~]# vi .bashrc                                  # 编辑家目录下的.bashrc文件,在文件末尾添加下面的两行内容

    export WORKON_HOME=$HOME/.virtualenvs
    source /usr/bin/virtualenvwrapper.sh

[root@localhost ~]# source .bashrc                  # 重新加载.bashrc文件,使配置立即生效
virtualenvwrapper.user_scripts creating /root/.virtualenvs/premkproject
virtualenvwrapper.user_scripts creating /root/.virtualenvs/postmkproject
virtualenvwrapper.user_scripts creating /root/.virtualenvs/initialize
virtualenvwrapper.user_scripts creating /root/.virtualenvs/premkvirtualenv
virtualenvwrapper.user_scripts creating /root/.virtualenvs/postmkvirtualenv
virtualenvwrapper.user_scripts creating /root/.virtualenvs/prermvirtualenv
virtualenvwrapper.user_scripts creating /root/.virtualenvs/postrmvirtualenv
virtualenvwrapper.user_scripts creating /root/.virtualenvs/predeactivate
virtualenvwrapper.user_scripts creating /root/.virtualenvs/postdeactivate
virtualenvwrapper.user_scripts creating /root/.virtualenvs/preactivate
virtualenvwrapper.user_scripts creating /root/.virtualenvs/postactivate
virtualenvwrapper.user_scripts creating /root/.virtualenvs/get_env_details

3.使用 mkvirtualenv 命令创建虚拟环境

[root@localhost bin]# mkvirtualenv env27            # 创建env27虚拟环境,创建完成后切换到env27虚拟环境
New python executable in /root/.virtualenvs/env27/bin/python2
Also creating executable in /root/.virtualenvs/env27/bin/python
Installing setuptools, pip, wheel...done.
virtualenvwrapper.user_scripts creating /root/.virtualenvs/env27/bin/predeactivate
virtualenvwrapper.user_scripts creating /root/.virtualenvs/env27/bin/postdeactivate
virtualenvwrapper.user_scripts creating /root/.virtualenvs/env27/bin/preactivate
virtualenvwrapper.user_scripts creating /root/.virtualenvs/env27/bin/postactivate
virtualenvwrapper.user_scripts creating /root/.virtualenvs/env27/bin/get_env_details
(env27) [root@localhost bin]# pip list              # 列出env27虚拟环境下所有模块
Package    Version
---------- -------
pip        10.0.1 
setuptools 40.0.0 
wheel      0.31.1 
(env27) [root@localhost bin]# python                # 进入env27虚拟环境的python解释器
Python 2.7.5 (default, Apr 11 2018, 07:36:10) 
[GCC 4.8.5 20150623 (Red Hat 4.8.5-28)] on linux2
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
>>> exit()
(env27) [root@localhost bin]# pip install -i https://pypi.douban.com/simple django==1.11.6      # 在env27虚拟环境中安装1.11.6版本的Django
Looking in indexes: https://pypi.douban.com/simple
Collecting django==1.11.6
  Downloading https://pypi.doubanio.com/packages/82/33/f9d2871f3aed5062661711bf91b3ebb03daa52cc0e1c37925f3e0c4508c5/Django-1.11.6-py2.py3-none-any.whl (6.9MB)
    100% |████████████████████████████████| 7.0MB 468kB/s 
Collecting pytz (from django==1.11.6)
  Downloading https://pypi.doubanio.com/packages/30/4e/27c34b62430286c6d59177a0842ed90dc789ce5d1ed740887653b898779a/pytz-2018.5-py2.py3-none-any.whl (510kB)
    100% |████████████████████████████████| 512kB 521kB/s 
Installing collected packages: pytz, django
Successfully installed django-1.11.6 pytz-2018.5
(env27) [root@localhost bin]# pip list              # 列出env27虚拟环境下所有模块
Package    Version
---------- -------
Django     1.11.6 
pip        10.0.1 
pytz       2018.5 
setuptools 40.0.0 
wheel      0.31.1 
(env27) [root@localhost bin]# pip list | grep Django
Django     1.11.6 
(env27) [root@localhost bin]# deactivate            # 退出env27虚拟环境

4.安装指定python版本的虚拟环境

[root@localhost ~]# mkvirtualenv env36 -p /usr/local/python3/bin/python3.6      # 指定python解释器路径创建env36虚拟环境
Running virtualenv with interpreter /usr/local/python3/bin/python3.6
Using base prefix '/usr/local/python3'
New python executable in /root/.virtualenvs/env36/bin/python3.6
Also creating executable in /root/.virtualenvs/env36/bin/python
Installing setuptools, pip, wheel...done.
virtualenvwrapper.user_scripts creating /root/.virtualenvs/env36/bin/predeactivate
virtualenvwrapper.user_scripts creating /root/.virtualenvs/env36/bin/postdeactivate
virtualenvwrapper.user_scripts creating /root/.virtualenvs/env36/bin/preactivate
virtualenvwrapper.user_scripts creating /root/.virtualenvs/env36/bin/postactivate
virtualenvwrapper.user_scripts creating /root/.virtualenvs/env36/bin/get_env_details
(env36) [root@localhost ~]# python                          # 打开env36虚拟环境中的python解释器
Python 3.6.5rc1 (default, Jul 12 2018, 22:57:46) 
[GCC 4.8.5 20150623 (Red Hat 4.8.5-16)] on linux
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
>>> exit()
(env36) [root@localhost ~]# pip list                # 列出env36虚拟环境下安装的所有模块
Package    Version
---------- -------
pip        10.0.1 
setuptools 40.0.0 
wheel      0.31.1 
(env36) [root@localhost ~]# pip install -i https://pypi.douban.com/simple django        # 在env36虚拟环境中安装最新版本的Django:2.0.7
Looking in indexes: https://pypi.douban.com/simple
Collecting django
  Downloading https://pypi.doubanio.com/packages/ab/15/cfde97943f0db45e4f999c60b696fbb4df59e82bbccc686770f4e44c9094/Django-2.0.7-py3-none-any.whl (7.1MB)
    100% |████████████████████████████████| 7.1MB 472kB/s 
Collecting pytz (from django)
  Downloading https://pypi.doubanio.com/packages/30/4e/27c34b62430286c6d59177a0842ed90dc789ce5d1ed740887653b898779a/pytz-2018.5-py2.py3-none-any.whl (510kB)
    100% |████████████████████████████████| 512kB 622kB/s 
Installing collected packages: pytz, django
(env36) [root@localhost ~]# pip list                # 列出env36虚拟环境下安装的所有模块
Package    Version
---------- -------
Django     2.0.7  
pip        10.0.1 
pytz       2018.5 
setuptools 40.0.0 
wheel      0.31.1 

也可以使用 --python 指定python解释器的方式创建虚拟环境,完整命令如下:

mkvirtualenv env36 --python /usr/local/python3/bin/python3.6

5.使用 lsvirtualenv 命令列出所有虚拟环境

(env36) [root@localhost ~]# lsvirtualenv -b     # 以简短方式列出当前系统中所有的虚拟环境
env27
env36
(env36) [root@localhost ~]# lsvirtualenv -l     # 以长格式方式列出当前系统中所有的虚拟环境
env27
=====


env36
=====


(env36) [root@localhost ~]# lsvirtualenv -h     # 显示当前命令的帮助信息
lsvirtualenv [-blh]
  -b -- brief mode
  -l -- long mode
  -h -- this help message

6.使用 workon 命令切换虚拟环境

(env36) [root@localhost ~]# deactivate          # 退出env36虚拟环境
[root@localhost ~]# workon env27                # 进入env27虚拟环境
(env27) [root@localhost ~]# pip list                # 列出env27虚拟环境下安装的所有模块
Package    Version
---------- -------
Django     1.11.6 
pip        10.0.1 
pytz       2018.5 
setuptools 39.1.0 
wheel      0.31.1 
(env27) [root@localhost ~]# workon env36            # 进入env36虚拟环境
(env36) [root@localhost ~]# pip list                # 列出env36虚拟环境下安装的所有模块
Package    Version
---------- -------
Django     2.0.7  
pip        10.0.1 
pytz       2018.5 
setuptools 40.0.0 
wheel      0.31.1 
(env36) [root@localhost ~]# 

7.使用 deactivate 命令注销当前虚拟环境

(env36) [root@localhost ~]# deactivate          # 退出env36虚拟环境
[root@localhost ~]# workon env27                # 进入env27虚拟环境
(env27) [root@localhost ~]# python              # 打开env27虚拟环境的python解释器
Python 2.7.5 (default, Aug  4 2017, 00:39:18) 
[GCC 4.8.5 20150623 (Red Hat 4.8.5-16)] on linux2
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
>>> exit()
(env27) [root@localhost ~]# deactivate          # 退出env27虚拟环境
[root@localhost ~]# 

8.使用 cpvirtualenv 命令复制虚拟环境

[root@localhost ~]# workon env36                # 进入env36虚拟环境
(env36) [root@localhost ~]# cpvirtualenv env36 env36_bak    # 复制env36虚拟环境为env36_bak
Copying env36 as env36_bak...
(env36_bak) [root@localhost ~]# python              # 打开env36_bak虚拟环境的python解释器
Python 2.7.5 (default, Aug  4 2017, 00:39:18)       # python解释器为2.7.5版本
[GCC 4.8.5 20150623 (Red Hat 4.8.5-16)] on linux2
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
>>> exit()
(env36_bak) [root@localhost ~]# pip list                # 列出env36_bak虚拟环境下安装的所有模块
Package    Version
---------- -------
Django     2.0.7  
pip        10.0.1 
pytz       2018.5 
setuptools 40.0.0 
wheel      0.31.1 
(env36_bak) [root@localhost ~]# cpvirtualenv env27 env27_bak    # 复制env27虚拟环境为env27_bak
Copying env27 as env27_bak...
(env27_bak) [root@localhost ~]# python              # 打开env27_bak虚拟环境的python解释器
Python 2.7.5 (default, Aug  4 2017, 00:39:18) 
[GCC 4.8.5 20150623 (Red Hat 4.8.5-16)] on linux2
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
>>> exit()
(env27_bak) [root@localhost ~]# 

在上面的命令结果里,使用cpvirtualenv命令复制得到新的虚拟环境env36_bak,python解释器版本为python2.7.5,是CentOS7系统内置的python版本

但是使用pip list命令列出env36_bak虚拟环境里安装的Django是2.0.7版本的,这是env36虚拟环境里安装的Django版本。

通过查阅官方文档,官方文档上指明了cpvirtualenv命令不完美,使用cpvirtualenv命令需要注意

img_d9c0d75333f1c774b720e5cad3b0921d.png

9.使用 cdsitepackages 命令进入到当前环境的site-packages目录

使用lssitepackages命令列出当前环境中site-packages内容

(env27_bak) [root@localhost ~]# cdsitepackages                  # 进入到env27_bak虚拟环境的site-packages目录
(env27_bak) [root@localhost site-packages]# lssitepackages      # 列出env27_bak虚拟环境中site-packages内容
easy_install.py   pip                   pkg_resources  setuptools-40.0.0.dist-info  wheel-0.31.1.dist-info
easy_install.pyc  pip-10.0.1.dist-info  setuptools     wheel
(env27_bak) [root@localhost site-packages]# workon env36        # 切换到env36虚拟环境
(env36) [root@localhost site-packages]# cdsitepackages          # 进入env36虚拟环境的site-packages目录
(env36) [root@localhost site-packages]# lssitepackages          # 列出env36虚拟环境中site-packages内容
django                  pip-10.0.1.dist-info  pytz-2018.5.dist-info        wheel-0.31.1.dist-info
Django-2.0.7.dist-info  pkg_resources         setuptools
easy_install.py         __pycache__           setuptools-40.0.0.dist-info
pip                     pytz                  wheel
(env36) [root@localhost site-packages]# python                  # 打开env36虚拟环境的python解释器
Python 3.6.5rc1 (default, Jul 12 2018, 22:57:46) 
[GCC 4.8.5 20150623 (Red Hat 4.8.5-16)] on linux
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
>>> exit()
(env36) [root@localhost site-packages]# 

10.使用 rmvirtualenv 命令删除环境

(env36) [root@localhost site-packages]# lsvirtualenv -b         # 列出当前系统中所有的虚拟环境
env27_bak
env27
env36_bak
env36
(env36) [root@localhost site-packages]# rmvirtualenv env36_bak      # 删除env36_bak虚拟环境
Removing env36_bak...
(env36) [root@localhost site-packages]# rmvirtualenv env27_bak      # 删除env27_bak虚拟环境
Removing env27_bak...
(env36) [root@localhost site-packages]# lsvirtualenv -b             # 列出当前系统中所有的虚拟环境
env27
env36
(env36) [root@localhost site-packages]# 

11.使用 wipeenv 命令卸载虚拟环境内所有第三方包

(env36) [root@localhost site-packages]# pip list                # 列出env36虚拟环境下所有模块
Package    Version
---------- -------
Django     2.0.7  
pip        10.0.1 
pytz       2018.5 
setuptools 40.0.0 
wheel      0.31.1 
(env36) [root@localhost site-packages]# wipeenv                 # 卸载env36虚拟环境内所有第三方包
Uninstalling packages:
Django==2.0.7
pytz==2018.5

Uninstalling Django-2.0.7:
  Successfully uninstalled Django-2.0.7
Uninstalling pytz-2018.5:
  Successfully uninstalled pytz-2018.5
(env36) [root@localhost site-packages]# pip list                # 列出env36虚拟环境下所有模块
Package    Version
---------- -------
pip        10.0.1 
setuptools 40.0.0 
wheel      0.31.1 
(env36) [root@localhost site-packages]# lsvirtualenv -b         # 列出当前系统中所有的虚拟环境
env27
env36
(env36) [root@localhost site-packages]# workon env27            # 切换到env27虚拟环境
(env27) [root@localhost site-packages]# pip list                # 列出env27虚拟环境下所有模块
Package    Version
---------- -------
Django     1.11.6 
pip        10.0.1 
pytz       2018.5 
setuptools 39.1.0 
wheel      0.31.1 
(env27) [root@localhost site-packages]# wipeenv                 # 卸载env27虚拟环境内所有第三方包
Uninstalling packages:
Django==1.11.6
pytz==2018.5

Uninstalling pytz-2018.5:
  Successfully uninstalled pytz-2018.5
Uninstalling Django-1.11.6:
  Successfully uninstalled Django-1.11.6
(env27) [root@localhost site-packages]# pip list                # 列出env27虚拟环境下所有模块
Package    Version
---------- -------
pip        10.0.1 
setuptools 39.1.0 
wheel      0.31.1 
(env27) [root@localhost site-packages]# deactivate          # 退出env27虚拟环境

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