MySQL Index Extensions

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MySQL Index Extensions

memos1 2018-10-05 21:01:44 浏览733
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Index Extensions含义

MySQL5.6开始 InnoDB可以通过主键自动扩展二级索引的功能称为Index Extensions,即二级索引除了存储本列索引的key值外,还存储着主键列key值。

创建如下测试表

mysql> show create table t1\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
       Table: t1
Create Table: CREATE TABLE `t1` (
  `i1` int(11) NOT NULL DEFAULT '0',
  `i2` int(11) NOT NULL DEFAULT '0',
  `d` date DEFAULT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY (`i1`,`i2`),
  KEY `k_d` (`d`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> INSERT INTO t1 VALUES
    -> (1, 1, '1998-01-01'), (1, 2, '1999-01-01'),
    -> (1, 3, '2000-01-01'), (1, 4, '2001-01-01'),
    -> (1, 5, '2002-01-01'), (2, 1, '1998-01-01'),
    -> (2, 2, '1999-01-01'), (2, 3, '2000-01-01'),
    -> (2, 4, '2001-01-01'), (2, 5, '2002-01-01'),
    -> (3, 1, '1998-01-01'), (3, 2, '1999-01-01'),
    -> (3, 3, '2000-01-01'), (3, 4, '2001-01-01'),
    -> (3, 5, '2002-01-01'), (4, 1, '1998-01-01'),
    -> (4, 2, '1999-01-01'), (4, 3, '2000-01-01'),
    -> (4, 4, '2001-01-01'), (4, 5, '2002-01-01'),
    -> (5, 1, '1998-01-01'), (5, 2, '1999-01-01'),
    -> (5, 3, '2000-01-01'), (5, 4, '2001-01-01'),
    -> (5, 5, '2002-01-01');
Query OK, 25 rows affected (0.08 sec)
Records: 25  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

其中PK是(i1,i2),二级索引是(d),但是InnoDB会自动扩展这个二级索引,变成(d,i1,i2),这样对于一些特殊的查询,可以提高性能;

开启index extensions,并测试使用该功能

即:use_index_extensions=on

mysql> show variables like 'optimizer_switch%'\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
Variable_name: optimizer_switch
        Value: index_merge=on,index_merge_union=on,index_merge_sort_union=on,index_merge_intersection=on,engine_condition_pushdown=on,index_condition_pushdown=on,mrr=on,mrr_cost_based=on,
                block_nested_loop=on,batched_key_access=off,materialization=on,semijoin=on,loosescan=on,firstmatch=on,duplicateweedout=on,subquery_materialization_cost_based=on,use_index_extensions=on,condition_fanout_filter=on,derived_merge=on
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> FLUSH TABLE t1;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.02 sec)

mysql> FLUSH STATUS;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)

mysql> SELECT COUNT(*) FROM t1 WHERE i1 = 3 AND d = '2000-01-01';
+----------+
| COUNT(*) |
+----------+
|        1 |
+----------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> SHOW STATUS LIKE 'handler_read%';
+-----------------------+-------+
| Variable_name         | Value |
+-----------------------+-------+
| Handler_read_first    | 0     |
| Handler_read_key      | 1     |
| Handler_read_last     | 0     |
| Handler_read_next     | 1     |
| Handler_read_prev     | 0     |
| Handler_read_rnd      | 0     |
| Handler_read_rnd_next | 0     |
+-----------------------+-------+
7 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> desc SELECT COUNT(*) FROM t1 WHERE i1 = 3 AND d = '2000-01-01';
+----+-------------+-------+------------+------+---------------+------+---------+-------------+------+----------+-------------+
| id | select_type | table | partitions | type | possible_keys | key  | key_len | ref         | rows | filtered | Extra       |
+----+-------------+-------+------------+------+---------------+------+---------+-------------+------+----------+-------------+
|  1 | SIMPLE      | t1    | NULL       | ref  | PRIMARY,k_d   | k_d  | 8       | const,const |    1 |   100.00 | Using index |
+----+-------------+-------+------------+------+---------------+------+---------+-------------+------+----------+-------------+
1 row in set, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

关闭index extensions,并测试没有使用该功能

即:use_index_extensions=off

mysql> set session  optimizer_switch='use_index_extensions=off';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> FLUSH TABLE t1;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.02 sec)

mysql> FLUSH STATUS;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.02 sec)

mysql> SELECT COUNT(*) FROM t1 WHERE i1 = 3 AND d = '2000-01-01';
+----------+
| COUNT(*) |
+----------+
|        1 |
+----------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> SHOW STATUS LIKE 'handler_read%';
+-----------------------+-------+
| Variable_name         | Value |
+-----------------------+-------+
| Handler_read_first    | 0     |
| Handler_read_key      | 1     |
| Handler_read_last     | 0     |
| Handler_read_next     | 5     |
| Handler_read_prev     | 0     |
| Handler_read_rnd      | 0     |
| Handler_read_rnd_next | 0     |
+-----------------------+-------+
7 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> desc SELECT COUNT(*) FROM t1 WHERE i1 = 3 AND d = '2000-01-01';
+----+-------------+-------+------------+------+---------------+---------+---------+-------+------+----------+-------------+
| id | select_type | table | partitions | type | possible_keys | key     | key_len | ref   | rows | filtered | Extra       |
+----+-------------+-------+------------+------+---------------+---------+---------+-------+------+----------+-------------+
|  1 | SIMPLE      | t1    | NULL       | ref  | PRIMARY,k_d   | PRIMARY | 4       | const |    5 |    20.00 | Using where |
+----+-------------+-------+------------+------+---------------+---------+---------+-------+------+----------+-------------+
1 row in set, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

总结

开启Index Extensions的时候,使用了索引扩展索引(d,i1,i2),从key=k_id,key_len=8,ref=const,const可以看出来,直接通过索引,不用回表(Using index),返回1行结果;

而关闭Index Extensions的时候,使用的是部分PK,并且检索5行,通过where后面的条件过滤20%,即最终返回1行数据,需要回表,效率肯定没有前面一种好;

参考链接

https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.7/en/index-extensions.html

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