NIO 详解 (尚硅谷 学习代码)

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NIO 详解 (尚硅谷 学习代码)

curiousby 2017-03-25 09:42:00 浏览551
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/*
 * 一、缓冲区(Buffer):在 Java NIO 中负责数据的存取。缓冲区就是数组。用于存储不同数据类型的数据
 * 
 * 根据数据类型不同(boolean 除外),提供了相应类型的缓冲区:
 * ByteBuffer
 * CharBuffer
 * ShortBuffer
 * IntBuffer
 * LongBuffer
 * FloatBuffer
 * DoubleBuffer
 * 
 * 上述缓冲区的管理方式几乎一致,通过 allocate() 获取缓冲区
 * 
 * 二、缓冲区存取数据的两个核心方法:
 * put() : 存入数据到缓冲区中
 * get() : 获取缓冲区中的数据
 * 
 * 三、缓冲区中的四个核心属性:
 * capacity : 容量,表示缓冲区中最大存储数据的容量。一旦声明不能改变。
 * limit : 界限,表示缓冲区中可以操作数据的大小。(limit 后数据不能进行读写)
 * position : 位置,表示缓冲区中正在操作数据的位置。
 * 
 * mark : 标记,表示记录当前 position 的位置。可以通过 reset() 恢复到 mark 的位置
 * 
 * 0 <= mark <= position <= limit <= capacity
 * 
 * 四、直接缓冲区与非直接缓冲区:
 * 非直接缓冲区:通过 allocate() 方法分配缓冲区,将缓冲区建立在 JVM 的内存中
 * 直接缓冲区:通过 allocateDirect() 方法分配直接缓冲区,将缓冲区建立在物理内存中。可以提高效率
 */
public class NIOBufferTest {

    
    
    @Test
    public void test3(){
        //分配直接缓冲区
        ByteBuffer buf = ByteBuffer.allocateDirect(1024);
        
        System.out.println(buf.isDirect());
    }
    
    @Test
    public void test2(){
        String str = "abcde";
        
        ByteBuffer buf = ByteBuffer.allocate(1024);
        
        buf.put(str.getBytes());
        
        buf.flip();
        
        byte[] dst = new byte[buf.limit()];
        buf.get(dst, 0, 2);
        System.out.println(new String(dst, 0, 2));
        System.out.println(buf.position());
        
        //mark() : 标记
        buf.mark();
        
        buf.get(dst, 2, 2);
        System.out.println(new String(dst, 2, 2));
        System.out.println(buf.position());
        
        //reset() : 恢复到 mark 的位置
        buf.reset();
        System.out.println(buf.position());
        
        //判断缓冲区中是否还有剩余数据
        if(buf.hasRemaining()){
            
            //获取缓冲区中可以操作的数量
            System.out.println(buf.remaining());
        }
    }
    
    @Test
    public void test1(String[] args) throws UnsupportedEncodingException {

        String str = "baoyou包优";
        // 分配一个指定大小的缓冲区
        ByteBuffer buffer = ByteBuffer.allocate(1024);
        System.out.println("buffer\tallocate\tlimit:(" + buffer.limit() + "),capacity:(" + buffer.capacity()
                + "),position:(" + buffer.position() + ")\t");
        //put() 存入数据到缓冲区中
        buffer.put(str.getBytes("UTF-8"));
        System.out.println("buffer\tput\tlimit:(" + buffer.limit() + "),capacity:(" + buffer.capacity()
                + "),position:(" + buffer.position() + ")\t");
        //切换读取数据模式
        buffer.flip();
        //get() 读取缓冲区中的数据
        byte[] bytes = new byte[buffer.limit()];
        buffer.get(bytes);
        System.out.println("buffer\tget\tlimit:(" + buffer.limit() + "),capacity:(" + buffer.capacity()
                + "),position:(" + buffer.position() + ")\t");
        System.out.println(new String(bytes));
        //可重复读
        buffer.rewind();
        buffer.get(bytes);
        System.out.println("buffer\trewind\tlimit:(" + buffer.limit() + "),capacity:(" + buffer.capacity()
                + "),position:(" + buffer.position() + ")\t");
        System.out.println(new String(bytes));
        //clear() : 清空缓冲区. 但是缓冲区中的数据依然存在,但是处于“被遗忘”状态
        buffer.clear();
        System.out.println("buffer\tclear\tlimit:(" + buffer.limit() + "),capacity:(" + buffer.capacity()
        + "),position:(" + buffer.position() + ")\t");
    }

}

 

/*
 * 一、通道(Channel):用于源节点与目标节点的连接。在 Java NIO 中负责缓冲区中数据的传输。Channel 本身不存储数据,因此需要配合缓冲区进行传输。
 * 
 * 二、通道的主要实现类
 *  java.nio.channels.Channel 接口:
 *      |--FileChannel
 *      |--SocketChannel
 *      |--ServerSocketChannel
 *      |--DatagramChannel
 * 
 * 三、获取通道
 * 1. Java 针对支持通道的类提供了 getChannel() 方法
 *      本地 IO:
 *      FileInputStream/FileOutputStream
 *      RandomAccessFile
 * 
 *      网络IO:
 *      Socket
 *      ServerSocket
 *      DatagramSocket
 *      
 * 2. 在 JDK 1.7 中的 NIO.2 针对各个通道提供了静态方法 open()
 * 3. 在 JDK 1.7 中的 NIO.2 的 Files 工具类的 newByteChannel()
 * 
 * 四、通道之间的数据传输
 * transferFrom()
 * transferTo()
 * 
 * 五、分散(Scatter)与聚集(Gather)
 * 分散读取(Scattering Reads):将通道中的数据分散到多个缓冲区中
 * 聚集写入(Gathering Writes):将多个缓冲区中的数据聚集到通道中
 * 
 * 六、字符集:Charset
 * 编码:字符串 -> 字节数组
 * 解码:字节数组  -> 字符串
 * 
 */
public class NIOChannelTest {
  //字符集
    @Test
    public void test6() throws IOException{
        Charset cs1 = Charset.forName("GBK");
        
        //获取编码器
        CharsetEncoder ce = cs1.newEncoder();
        
        //获取解码器
        CharsetDecoder cd = cs1.newDecoder();
        
        CharBuffer cBuf = CharBuffer.allocate(1024);
        cBuf.put("呵呵呵");
        cBuf.flip();
        
        //编码
        ByteBuffer bBuf = ce.encode(cBuf);
        
        for (int i = 0; i < 12; i++) {
            System.out.println(bBuf.get());
        }
        
        //解码
        bBuf.flip();
        CharBuffer cBuf2 = cd.decode(bBuf);
        System.out.println(cBuf2.toString());
        
        System.out.println("------------------------------------------------------");
        
        Charset cs2 = Charset.forName("GBK");
        bBuf.flip();
        CharBuffer cBuf3 = cs2.decode(bBuf);
        System.out.println(cBuf3.toString());
    }
    
    @Test
    public void test5(){
        Map<String, Charset> map = Charset.availableCharsets();
        
        Set<Entry<String, Charset>> set = map.entrySet();
        
        for (Entry<String, Charset> entry : set) {
            System.out.println(entry.getKey() + "=" + entry.getValue());
        }
    }
    
    //分散和聚集
    @Test
    public void test4() throws IOException{
        RandomAccessFile raf1 = new RandomAccessFile("1.txt", "rw");
        
        //1. 获取通道
        FileChannel channel1 = raf1.getChannel();
        
        //2. 分配指定大小的缓冲区
        ByteBuffer buf1 = ByteBuffer.allocate(100);
        ByteBuffer buf2 = ByteBuffer.allocate(1024);
        
        //3. 分散读取
        ByteBuffer[] bufs = {buf1, buf2};
        channel1.read(bufs);
        
        for (ByteBuffer byteBuffer : bufs) {
            byteBuffer.flip();
        }
        
        System.out.println(new String(bufs[0].array(), 0, bufs[0].limit()));
        System.out.println("-----------------");
        System.out.println(new String(bufs[1].array(), 0, bufs[1].limit()));
        
        //4. 聚集写入
        RandomAccessFile raf2 = new RandomAccessFile("2.txt", "rw");
        FileChannel channel2 = raf2.getChannel();
        
        channel2.write(bufs);
    }
    
    //通道之间的数据传输(直接缓冲区)
    @Test
    public void test3() throws IOException{
        FileChannel inChannel = FileChannel.open(Paths.get("d:/1.mkv"), StandardOpenOption.READ);
        FileChannel outChannel = FileChannel.open(Paths.get("d:/2.mkv"), StandardOpenOption.WRITE, StandardOpenOption.READ, StandardOpenOption.CREATE);
        
//      inChannel.transferTo(0, inChannel.size(), outChannel);
        outChannel.transferFrom(inChannel, 0, inChannel.size());
        
        inChannel.close();
        outChannel.close();
    }
    
    //使用直接缓冲区完成文件的复制(内存映射文件)
    @Test
    public void test2() throws IOException{//2127-1902-1777
        long start = System.currentTimeMillis();
        
        FileChannel inChannel = FileChannel.open(Paths.get("d:/1.mkv"), StandardOpenOption.READ);
        FileChannel outChannel = FileChannel.open(Paths.get("d:/2.mkv"), StandardOpenOption.WRITE, StandardOpenOption.READ, StandardOpenOption.CREATE);
        
        //内存映射文件
        MappedByteBuffer inMappedBuf = inChannel.map(MapMode.READ_ONLY, 0, inChannel.size());
        MappedByteBuffer outMappedBuf = outChannel.map(MapMode.READ_WRITE, 0, inChannel.size());
        
        //直接对缓冲区进行数据的读写操作
        byte[] dst = new byte[inMappedBuf.limit()];
        inMappedBuf.get(dst);
        outMappedBuf.put(dst);
        
        inChannel.close();
        outChannel.close();
        
        long end = System.currentTimeMillis();
        System.out.println("耗费时间为:" + (end - start));
    }
    
    //利用通道完成文件的复制(非直接缓冲区)
    @Test
    public void test1(){//10874-10953
        long start = System.currentTimeMillis();
        
        FileInputStream fis = null;
        FileOutputStream fos = null;
        //①获取通道
        FileChannel inChannel = null;
        FileChannel outChannel = null;
        try {
            fis = new FileInputStream("d:/1.mkv");
            fos = new FileOutputStream("d:/2.mkv");
            
            inChannel = fis.getChannel();
            outChannel = fos.getChannel();
            
            //②分配指定大小的缓冲区
            ByteBuffer buf = ByteBuffer.allocate(1024);
            
            //③将通道中的数据存入缓冲区中
            while(inChannel.read(buf) != -1){
                buf.flip(); //切换读取数据的模式
                //④将缓冲区中的数据写入通道中
                outChannel.write(buf);
                buf.clear(); //清空缓冲区
            }
        } catch (IOException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        } finally {
            if(outChannel != null){
                try {
                    outChannel.close();
                } catch (IOException e) {
                    e.printStackTrace();
                }
            }
            
            if(inChannel != null){
                try {
                    inChannel.close();
                } catch (IOException e) {
                    e.printStackTrace();
                }
            }
            
            if(fos != null){
                try {
                    fos.close();
                } catch (IOException e) {
                    e.printStackTrace();
                }
            }
            
            if(fis != null){
                try {
                    fis.close();
                } catch (IOException e) {
                    e.printStackTrace();
                }
            }
        }
        
        long end = System.currentTimeMillis();
        System.out.println("耗费时间为:" + (end - start));
        
    }
}

 

package com.atguigu.nio;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.net.InetSocketAddress;
import java.nio.ByteBuffer;
import java.nio.channels.FileChannel;
import java.nio.channels.ServerSocketChannel;
import java.nio.channels.SocketChannel;
import java.nio.file.Paths;
import java.nio.file.StandardOpenOption;

import org.junit.Test;

public class TestBlockingNIO2 {
	
	//客户端
	@Test
	public void client() throws IOException{
		SocketChannel sChannel = SocketChannel.open(new InetSocketAddress("127.0.0.1", 9898));
		
		FileChannel inChannel = FileChannel.open(Paths.get("1.jpg"), StandardOpenOption.READ);
		
		ByteBuffer buf = ByteBuffer.allocate(1024);
		
		while(inChannel.read(buf) != -1){
			buf.flip();
			sChannel.write(buf);
			buf.clear();
		}
		
		sChannel.shutdownOutput();
		
		//接收服务端的反馈
		int len = 0;
		while((len = sChannel.read(buf)) != -1){
			buf.flip();
			System.out.println(new String(buf.array(), 0, len));
			buf.clear();
		}
		
		inChannel.close();
		sChannel.close();
	}
	
	//服务端
	@Test
	public void server() throws IOException{
		ServerSocketChannel ssChannel = ServerSocketChannel.open();
		
		FileChannel outChannel = FileChannel.open(Paths.get("2.jpg"), StandardOpenOption.WRITE, StandardOpenOption.CREATE);
		
		ssChannel.bind(new InetSocketAddress(9898));
		
		SocketChannel sChannel = ssChannel.accept();
		
		ByteBuffer buf = ByteBuffer.allocate(1024);
		
		while(sChannel.read(buf) != -1){
			buf.flip();
			outChannel.write(buf);
			buf.clear();
		}
		
		//发送反馈给客户端
		buf.put("服务端接收数据成功".getBytes());
		buf.flip();
		sChannel.write(buf);
		
		sChannel.close();
		outChannel.close();
		ssChannel.close();
	}

}

 

package com.atguigu.nio;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.net.InetSocketAddress;
import java.nio.ByteBuffer;
import java.nio.channels.FileChannel;
import java.nio.channels.ServerSocketChannel;
import java.nio.channels.SocketChannel;
import java.nio.file.Paths;
import java.nio.file.StandardOpenOption;

import org.junit.Test;

/*
 * 一、使用 NIO 完成网络通信的三个核心:
 * 
 * 1. 通道(Channel):负责连接
 * 		
 * 	   java.nio.channels.Channel 接口:
 * 			|--SelectableChannel
 * 				|--SocketChannel
 * 				|--ServerSocketChannel
 * 				|--DatagramChannel
 * 
 * 				|--Pipe.SinkChannel
 * 				|--Pipe.SourceChannel
 * 
 * 2. 缓冲区(Buffer):负责数据的存取
 * 
 * 3. 选择器(Selector):是 SelectableChannel 的多路复用器。用于监控 SelectableChannel 的 IO 状况
 * 
 */
public class TestBlockingNIO {

	//客户端
	@Test
	public void client() throws IOException{
		//1. 获取通道
		SocketChannel sChannel = SocketChannel.open(new InetSocketAddress("127.0.0.1", 9898));
		
		FileChannel inChannel = FileChannel.open(Paths.get("1.jpg"), StandardOpenOption.READ);
		
		//2. 分配指定大小的缓冲区
		ByteBuffer buf = ByteBuffer.allocate(1024);
		
		//3. 读取本地文件,并发送到服务端
		while(inChannel.read(buf) != -1){
			buf.flip();
			sChannel.write(buf);
			buf.clear();
		}
		
		//4. 关闭通道
		inChannel.close();
		sChannel.close();
	}
	
	//服务端
	@Test
	public void server() throws IOException{
		//1. 获取通道
		ServerSocketChannel ssChannel = ServerSocketChannel.open();
		
		FileChannel outChannel = FileChannel.open(Paths.get("2.jpg"), StandardOpenOption.WRITE, StandardOpenOption.CREATE);
		
		//2. 绑定连接
		ssChannel.bind(new InetSocketAddress(9898));
		
		//3. 获取客户端连接的通道
		SocketChannel sChannel = ssChannel.accept();
		
		//4. 分配指定大小的缓冲区
		ByteBuffer buf = ByteBuffer.allocate(1024);
		
		//5. 接收客户端的数据,并保存到本地
		while(sChannel.read(buf) != -1){
			buf.flip();
			outChannel.write(buf);
			buf.clear();
		}
		
		//6. 关闭通道
		sChannel.close();
		outChannel.close();
		ssChannel.close();
		
	}
	
}

 

package com.atguigu.nio;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.net.InetSocketAddress;
import java.nio.ByteBuffer;
import java.nio.channels.SelectionKey;
import java.nio.channels.Selector;
import java.nio.channels.ServerSocketChannel;
import java.nio.channels.SocketChannel;
import java.util.Date;
import java.util.Iterator;
import java.util.Scanner;

import org.junit.Test;

/*
 * 一、使用 NIO 完成网络通信的三个核心:
 * 
 * 1. 通道(Channel):负责连接
 * 		
 * 	   java.nio.channels.Channel 接口:
 * 			|--SelectableChannel
 * 				|--SocketChannel
 * 				|--ServerSocketChannel
 * 				|--DatagramChannel
 * 
 * 				|--Pipe.SinkChannel
 * 				|--Pipe.SourceChannel
 * 
 * 2. 缓冲区(Buffer):负责数据的存取
 * 
 * 3. 选择器(Selector):是 SelectableChannel 的多路复用器。用于监控 SelectableChannel 的 IO 状况
 * 
 */
public class TestNonBlockingNIO {
	
	//客户端
	@Test
	public void client() throws IOException{
		//1. 获取通道
		SocketChannel sChannel = SocketChannel.open(new InetSocketAddress("127.0.0.1", 9898));
		
		//2. 切换非阻塞模式
		sChannel.configureBlocking(false);
		
		//3. 分配指定大小的缓冲区
		ByteBuffer buf = ByteBuffer.allocate(1024);
		
		//4. 发送数据给服务端
		Scanner scan = new Scanner(System.in);
		
		while(scan.hasNext()){
			String str = scan.next();
			buf.put((new Date().toString() + "\n" + str).getBytes());
			buf.flip();
			sChannel.write(buf);
			buf.clear();
		}
		
		//5. 关闭通道
		sChannel.close();
	}

	//服务端
	@Test
	public void server() throws IOException{
		//1. 获取通道
		ServerSocketChannel ssChannel = ServerSocketChannel.open();
		
		//2. 切换非阻塞模式
		ssChannel.configureBlocking(false);
		
		//3. 绑定连接
		ssChannel.bind(new InetSocketAddress(9898));
		
		//4. 获取选择器
		Selector selector = Selector.open();
		
		//5. 将通道注册到选择器上, 并且指定“监听接收事件”
		ssChannel.register(selector, SelectionKey.OP_ACCEPT);
		
		//6. 轮询式的获取选择器上已经“准备就绪”的事件
		while(selector.select() > 0){
			
			//7. 获取当前选择器中所有注册的“选择键(已就绪的监听事件)”
			Iterator<SelectionKey> it = selector.selectedKeys().iterator();
			
			while(it.hasNext()){
				//8. 获取准备“就绪”的是事件
				SelectionKey sk = it.next();
				
				//9. 判断具体是什么事件准备就绪
				if(sk.isAcceptable()){
					//10. 若“接收就绪”,获取客户端连接
					SocketChannel sChannel = ssChannel.accept();
					
					//11. 切换非阻塞模式
					sChannel.configureBlocking(false);
					
					//12. 将该通道注册到选择器上
					sChannel.register(selector, SelectionKey.OP_READ);
				}else if(sk.isReadable()){
					//13. 获取当前选择器上“读就绪”状态的通道
					SocketChannel sChannel = (SocketChannel) sk.channel();
					
					//14. 读取数据
					ByteBuffer buf = ByteBuffer.allocate(1024);
					
					int len = 0;
					while((len = sChannel.read(buf)) > 0 ){
						buf.flip();
						System.out.println(new String(buf.array(), 0, len));
						buf.clear();
					}
				}
				
				//15. 取消选择键 SelectionKey
				it.remove();
			}
		}
	}
}

 

package com.atguigu.nio;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.net.InetSocketAddress;
import java.nio.ByteBuffer;
import java.nio.channels.DatagramChannel;
import java.nio.channels.SelectionKey;
import java.nio.channels.Selector;
import java.util.Date;
import java.util.Iterator;
import java.util.Scanner;

import org.junit.Test;

public class TestNonBlockingNIO2 {
	
	@Test
	public void send() throws IOException{
		DatagramChannel dc = DatagramChannel.open();
		
		dc.configureBlocking(false);
		
		ByteBuffer buf = ByteBuffer.allocate(1024);
		
		Scanner scan = new Scanner(System.in);
		
		while(scan.hasNext()){
			String str = scan.next();
			buf.put((new Date().toString() + ":\n" + str).getBytes());
			buf.flip();
			dc.send(buf, new InetSocketAddress("127.0.0.1", 9898));
			buf.clear();
		}
		
		dc.close();
	}
	
	@Test
	public void receive() throws IOException{
		DatagramChannel dc = DatagramChannel.open();
		
		dc.configureBlocking(false);
		
		dc.bind(new InetSocketAddress(9898));
		
		Selector selector = Selector.open();
		
		dc.register(selector, SelectionKey.OP_READ);
		
		while(selector.select() > 0){
			Iterator<SelectionKey> it = selector.selectedKeys().iterator();
			
			while(it.hasNext()){
				SelectionKey sk = it.next();
				
				if(sk.isReadable()){
					ByteBuffer buf = ByteBuffer.allocate(1024);
					
					dc.receive(buf);
					buf.flip();
					System.out.println(new String(buf.array(), 0, buf.limit()));
					buf.clear();
				}
			}
			
			it.remove();
		}
	}

}

 

package com.atguigu.nio;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.nio.ByteBuffer;
import java.nio.channels.Pipe;

import org.junit.Test;

public class TestPipe {

	@Test
	public void test1() throws IOException{
		//1. 获取管道
		Pipe pipe = Pipe.open();
		
		//2. 将缓冲区中的数据写入管道
		ByteBuffer buf = ByteBuffer.allocate(1024);
		
		Pipe.SinkChannel sinkChannel = pipe.sink();
		buf.put("通过单向管道发送数据".getBytes());
		buf.flip();
		sinkChannel.write(buf);
		
		//3. 读取缓冲区中的数据
		Pipe.SourceChannel sourceChannel = pipe.source();
		buf.flip();
		int len = sourceChannel.read(buf);
		System.out.println(new String(buf.array(), 0, len));
		
		sourceChannel.close();
		sinkChannel.close();
	}
	
}

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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