接口自动化框架(Pytest+request+Allure)

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接口自动化框架(Pytest+request+Allure)

小喜_ww 2018-08-25 22:07:00 浏览1828
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前言:

接口自动化是指模拟程序接口层面的自动化,由于接口不易变更,维护成本更小,所以深受各大公司的喜爱。
接口自动化包含2个部分,功能性的接口自动化测试和并发接口自动化测试。
本次文章着重介绍第一种,功能性的接口自动化框架。


一、简单介绍

环境:Mac、Python 3,Pytest,Allure,Request
流程:读取Yaml测试数据-生成测试用例-执行测试用例-生成Allure报告
模块类的设计说明:

Request.py 封装request方法,可以支持多协议扩展(get\post\put)
Config.py读取配置文件,包括:不同环境的配置,email相关配置
Log.py 封装记录log方法,分为:debug、info、warning、error、critical
Email.py 封装smtplib方法,运行结果发送邮件通知
Assert.py 封装assert方法
run.py 核心代码。定义并执行用例集,生成报告

Yaml测试数据格式如下:

---
Basic:
  dec: "基础设置"
  parameters:
    -
      url: /settings/basic.json
      data: slug=da1677475c27
      header: {
                 "User-Agent": "Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_13_6) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko)\
                  Chrome/67.0.3396.99 Safari/537.36",
                 "Content-Type": "keep-alive"
              }

二、代码结构与框架流程

1、代码结构见下图:

代码结构.png

2、框架流程见下图:

框架流程.jpg


三、详细功能和使用说明

1、定义配置文件config.ini

该文件中区分测试环境[private_debug]和正式环境[online_release]分别定义相关配置项,[mail]部分为邮件相关配置项

# http接口测试框架配置信息

[private_debug]
# debug测试服务
tester = your name
environment = debug
versionCode = your version
host = www.jianshu.com
loginHost = /Login
loginInfo = email=wang@user.com&password=123456

[online_release]
# release正式服务
tester = your name
environment = release
versionCode = v1.0
host = www.jianshu.com
loginHost = /Login
loginInfo = email=wang@user.com&password=123456

[mail]
#发送邮件信息
smtpserver = smtp.163.com
sender = test1@163.com
receiver = wang@user.com
username = wang@user.com
password = 123456
2、读取yaml测试数据后封装

yaml测试数据例子见第一节,一条接口可定义多条case数据,get_parameter为已封装好的读取yaml数据方法,循环读取后将多条case数据存在list中。

class Basic:
    params = get_parameter('Basic')
    url = []
    data = []
    header = []
    for i in range(0, len(params)):
        url.append(params[i]['url'])
        data.append(params[i]['data'])
        header.append(params[i]['header'])
3、编写用例
class TestBasic:
    @pytest.allure.feature('Home')
    @allure.severity('blocker')
    @allure.story('Basic')
    def test_basic_01(self, action):
        """
            用例描述:未登陆状态下查看基础设置
        """
        conf = Config()
        data = Basic()
        test = Assert.Assertions()
        request = Request.Request(action)

        host = conf.host_debug
        req_url = 'http://' + host
        urls = data.url
        params = data.data
        headers = data.header

        api_url = req_url + urls[0]
        response = request.get_request(api_url, params[0], headers[0])

        assert test.assert_code(response['code'], 401)
        assert test.assert_body(response['body'], 'error', u'继续操作前请注册或者登录.')
        assert test.assert_time(response['time_consuming'], 400)
        Consts.RESULT_LIST.append('True')
4、运行整个框架run.py
if __name__ == '__main__':
    # 定义测试集
    allure_list = '--allure_features=Home,Personal'
    args = ['-s', '-q', '--alluredir', xml_report_path, allure_list]
    log.info('执行用例集为:%s' % allure_list)
    self_args = sys.argv[1:]
    pytest.main(args)
    cmd = 'allure generate %s -o %s' % (xml_report_path, html_report_path)

    try:
        shell.invoke(cmd)
    except:
        log.error('执行用例失败,请检查环境配置')
        raise

    try:
        mail = Email.SendMail()
        mail.sendMail()
    except:
        log.error('发送邮件失败,请检查邮件配置')
        raise
5、err.log实例
[ERROR 2018-08-24 09:55:37]Response body != expected_msg, expected_msg is {"error":"继续操作前请注册或者登录9."}, body is {"error":"继续操作前请注册或者登录."}
[ERROR 2018-08-24 10:00:11]Response time > expected_time, expected_time is 400, time is 482.745
[ERROR 2018-08-25 21:49:41]statusCode error, expected_code is 208, statusCode is 200 
6、Assert部分代码
    def assert_body(self, body, body_msg, expected_msg):
        """
        验证response body中任意属性的值
        :param body:
        :param body_msg:
        :param expected_msg:
        :return:
        """
        try:
            msg = body[body_msg]
            assert msg == expected_msg
            return True

        except:
            self.log.error("Response body msg != expected_msg, expected_msg is %s, body_msg is %s" % (expected_msg, body_msg))
            Consts.RESULT_LIST.append('fail')

            raise

    def assert_in_text(self, body, expected_msg):
        """
        验证response body中是否包含预期字符串
        :param body:
        :param expected_msg:
        :return:
        """
        try:
            text = json.dumps(body, ensure_ascii=False)
            # print(text)
            assert expected_msg in text
            return True

        except:
            self.log.error("Response body Does not contain expected_msg, expected_msg is %s" % expected_msg)
            Consts.RESULT_LIST.append('fail')

            raise
7、Request部分代码
    def post_request(self, url, data, header):
        """
        Post请求
        :param url:
        :param data:
        :param header:
        :return:

        """
        if not url.startswith('http://'):
            url = '%s%s' % ('http://', url)
            print(url)
        try:
            if data is None:
                response = self.get_session.post(url=url, headers=header)
            else:
                response = self.get_session.post(url=url, params=data, headers=header)

        except requests.RequestException as e:
            print('%s%s' % ('RequestException url: ', url))
            print(e)
            return ()

        except Exception as e:
            print('%s%s' % ('Exception url: ', url))
            print(e)
            return ()

        # time_consuming为响应时间,单位为毫秒
        time_consuming = response.elapsed.microseconds/1000
        # time_total为响应时间,单位为秒
        time_total = response.elapsed.total_seconds()

        Common.Consts.STRESS_LIST.append(time_consuming)

        response_dicts = dict()
        response_dicts['code'] = response.status_code
        try:
            response_dicts['body'] = response.json()
        except Exception as e:
            print(e)
            response_dicts['body'] = ''

        response_dicts['text'] = response.text
        response_dicts['time_consuming'] = time_consuming
        response_dicts['time_total'] = time_total

        return response_dicts

四、Allure报告及Email

1、Allure报告总览,见下图:

Allure报告.png

2、Email见下图:

Email.png


五、后续优化

1、集成Jenkins,使用Jenkins插件生成Allure报告
2、多线程并发接口自动化测试
3、接口加密,参数加密


后续会开源全部代码,请关注我的Github


以上,喜欢的话请点赞️吧~
请关注我的简书,博客,TesterHome,Github~~~

作者:搁浅
出处: http://www.cnblogs.com/xiaoxi-3-/
如果对您有帮助,请关注我的同名简书:https://www.jianshu.com/u/da1677475c27
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