C#高性能二进制序列化

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C#高性能二进制序列化

yswenli 2018-06-23 16:10:00 浏览1026
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        二进制序列化可以方便快捷的将对象进行持久化或者网络传输,并且体积小、性能高,应用面甚至还要高于json的序列化;开始之前,先来看看dotcore/dotne自带的二进制序列化:C#中对象序列化和反序列化一般是通过BinaryFormatter类来实现的二进制序列化、反序列化的。

        BinaryFormatter序列化:

1 System.Runtime.Serialization.Formatters.Binary.BinaryFormatter serializer = new System.Runtime.Serialization.Formatters.Binary.BinaryFormatter();
2 
3 System.IO.MemoryStream memStream = new System.IO.MemoryStream();
4 
5 serializer.Serialize(memStream, request);

        BinaryFormatter反序列化:

 1  memStream.Position=0;
 2 
 3  System.Runtime.Serialization.Formatters.Binary.BinaryFormatter deserializer =
 4 
 5  new System.Runtime.Serialization.Formatters.Binary.BinaryFormatter();
 6 
 7  object newobj = deserializer.Deserialize(memStream);
 8 
 9  memStream.Close();
10 
11  return newobj;

        用着多了就发现BinaryFormatter有很多地方不妥,下面就来数数这个序列化的“三宗罪”:

        1.类名上面要加上[Serializable],不加不给序列化;正常的用法应该是序列化一个对象,不需的地方加上NonSerialized才合理吧;

        2.序列化byte[]结果非常大,使用System.Text.Encoding.UTF8.GetString(bytes)查看下,发现里面有一大堆的元数据;对比看看google的protobuf,pb为什么在网络上应用的越来越多,这和他本身序列化完后体积小有着绝大部门的原因;

        3.序列化对象需要完全一致,连类的命名空间都要相同,这点对于分面式开发的应用来说也是不可接受的;

        既然BinaryFormatter不好用,那就只能动手自行实现一个解决上述问题的二进制序列化方案;首先去掉[Serializable]这个标签,接着主要是分析对象,并定义对象序列化后的数据结构;这里的想法是按长度加内容的方式来定义,举个例子:使用int作为长度,来保存一个int值,序列化完应该是:4,0,0,0,1,0,0,0这样的一组bytes,同理可以将int、short、long、float、double、datetime、enum、array、string、class、generic等按照这个格式进行序列化,这里主要使用的是BitConverter、反射等来实现序列化与反序列化;

        序列化实现如下:

  1         public static byte[] Serialize(object param)
  2         {
  3             List<byte> datas = new List<byte>();
  4 
  5             var len = 0;
  6 
  7             byte[] data = null;
  8 
  9             if (param == null)
 10             {
 11                 len = 0;
 12             }
 13             else
 14             {
 15                 if (param is string)
 16                 {
 17                     data = Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes((string)param);
 18                 }
 19                 else if (param is byte)
 20                 {
 21                     data = new byte[] { (byte)param };
 22                 }
 23                 else if (param is bool)
 24                 {
 25                     data = BitConverter.GetBytes((bool)param);
 26                 }
 27                 else if (param is short)
 28                 {
 29                     data = BitConverter.GetBytes((short)param);
 30                 }
 31                 else if (param is int)
 32                 {
 33                     data = BitConverter.GetBytes((int)param);
 34                 }
 35                 else if (param is long)
 36                 {
 37                     data = BitConverter.GetBytes((long)param);
 38                 }
 39                 else if (param is float)
 40                 {
 41                     data = BitConverter.GetBytes((float)param);
 42                 }
 43                 else if (param is double)
 44                 {
 45                     data = BitConverter.GetBytes((double)param);
 46                 }
 47                 else if (param is DateTime)
 48                 {
 49                     var str = "wl" + ((DateTime)param).Ticks;
 50                     data = Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(str);
 51                 }
 52                 else if (param is Enum)
 53                 {
 54                     var enumValType = Enum.GetUnderlyingType(param.GetType());
 55 
 56                     if (enumValType == typeof(byte))
 57                     {
 58                         data = new byte[] { (byte)param };
 59                     }
 60                     else if (enumValType == typeof(short))
 61                     {
 62                         data = BitConverter.GetBytes((Int16)param);
 63                     }
 64                     else if (enumValType == typeof(int))
 65                     {
 66                         data = BitConverter.GetBytes((Int32)param);
 67                     }
 68                     else
 69                     {
 70                         data = BitConverter.GetBytes((Int64)param);
 71                     }
 72                 }
 73                 else if (param is byte[])
 74                 {
 75                     data = (byte[])param;
 76                 }
 77                 else
 78                 {
 79                     var type = param.GetType();
 80 
 81 
 82                     if (type.IsGenericType || type.IsArray)
 83                     {
 84                         if (TypeHelper.DicTypeStrs.Contains(type.Name))
 85                             data = SerializeDic((System.Collections.IDictionary)param);
 86                         else if (TypeHelper.ListTypeStrs.Contains(type.Name) || type.IsArray)
 87                             data = SerializeList((System.Collections.IEnumerable)param);
 88                         else
 89                             data = SerializeClass(param, type);
 90                     }
 91                     else if (type.IsClass)
 92                     {
 93                         data = SerializeClass(param, type);
 94                     }
 95 
 96                 }
 97                 if (data != null)
 98                     len = data.Length;
 99             }
100             datas.AddRange(BitConverter.GetBytes(len));
101             if (len > 0)
102             {
103                 datas.AddRange(data);
104             }
105             return datas.Count == 0 ? null : datas.ToArray();
106         }
View Code

        反序列化实现如下:

  1         public static object Deserialize(Type type, byte[] datas, ref int offset)
  2         {
  3             dynamic obj = null;
  4 
  5             var len = 0;
  6 
  7             byte[] data = null;
  8 
  9             len = BitConverter.ToInt32(datas, offset);
 10             offset += 4;
 11             if (len > 0)
 12             {
 13                 data = new byte[len];
 14                 Buffer.BlockCopy(datas, offset, data, 0, len);
 15                 offset += len;
 16 
 17                 if (type == typeof(string))
 18                 {
 19                     obj = Encoding.UTF8.GetString(data);
 20                 }
 21                 else if (type == typeof(byte))
 22                 {
 23                     obj = (data);
 24                 }
 25                 else if (type == typeof(bool))
 26                 {
 27                     obj = (BitConverter.ToBoolean(data, 0));
 28                 }
 29                 else if (type == typeof(short))
 30                 {
 31                     obj = (BitConverter.ToInt16(data, 0));
 32                 }
 33                 else if (type == typeof(int))
 34                 {
 35                     obj = (BitConverter.ToInt32(data, 0));
 36                 }
 37                 else if (type == typeof(long))
 38                 {
 39                     obj = (BitConverter.ToInt64(data, 0));
 40                 }
 41                 else if (type == typeof(float))
 42                 {
 43                     obj = (BitConverter.ToSingle(data, 0));
 44                 }
 45                 else if (type == typeof(double))
 46                 {
 47                     obj = (BitConverter.ToDouble(data, 0));
 48                 }
 49                 else if (type == typeof(decimal))
 50                 {
 51                     obj = (BitConverter.ToDouble(data, 0));
 52                 }
 53                 else if (type == typeof(DateTime))
 54                 {
 55                     var dstr = Encoding.UTF8.GetString(data);
 56                     var ticks = long.Parse(dstr.Substring(2));
 57                     obj = (new DateTime(ticks));
 58                 }
 59                 else if (type.BaseType == typeof(Enum))
 60                 {
 61                     var numType = Enum.GetUnderlyingType(type);
 62 
 63                     if (numType == typeof(byte))
 64                     {
 65                         obj = Enum.ToObject(type, data[0]);
 66                     }
 67                     else if (numType == typeof(short))
 68                     {
 69                         obj = Enum.ToObject(type, BitConverter.ToInt16(data, 0));
 70                     }
 71                     else if (numType == typeof(int))
 72                     {
 73                         obj = Enum.ToObject(type, BitConverter.ToInt32(data, 0));
 74                     }
 75                     else
 76                     {
 77                         obj = Enum.ToObject(type, BitConverter.ToInt64(data, 0));
 78                     }
 79                 }
 80                 else if (type == typeof(byte[]))
 81                 {
 82                     obj = (byte[])data;
 83                 }
 84                 else if (type.IsGenericType)
 85                 {
 86                     if (TypeHelper.ListTypeStrs.Contains(type.Name))
 87                     {
 88                         obj = DeserializeList(type, data);
 89                     }
 90                     else if (TypeHelper.DicTypeStrs.Contains(type.Name))
 91                     {
 92                         obj = DeserializeDic(type, data);
 93                     }
 94                     else
 95                     {
 96                         obj = DeserializeClass(type, data);
 97                     }
 98                 }
 99                 else if (type.IsClass)
100                 {
101                     obj = DeserializeClass(type, data);
102                 }
103                 else if (type.IsArray)
104                 {
105                     obj = DeserializeArray(type, data);
106                 }
107                 else
108                 {
109                     throw new RPCPamarsException("ParamsSerializeUtil.Deserialize 未定义的类型:" + type.ToString());
110                 }
111 
112             }
113             return obj;
114         }
View Code

        其他详细的代码可以查看ParamsSerializeUtil.cs

        功能基本实现了,下面对比一下10000次的实体序列化与反序列化测试结果:

        实体代码:

 1             var groupInfo = new GroupInfo()
 2             {
 3                 GroupID = 1,
 4                 IsTemporary = false,
 5                 Name = "yswenli group",
 6                 Created = DateTimeHelper.Now,
 7                 Creator = new UserInfo()
 8                 {
 9 
10                     ID = 1,
11                     Birthday = DateTimeHelper.Now.AddYears(-100),
12                     UserName = "yswenli"
13                 },
14                 Users = new System.Collections.Generic.List<UserInfo>()
15                 {
16                     new UserInfo()
17                     {
18 
19                         ID = 1,
20                         Birthday = DateTimeHelper.Now.AddYears(-100),
21                         UserName = "yswenli"
22                     }
23                 }
24             };

        测试代码:

 1         public static byte[] SerializeBinary(object request)
 2         {
 3 
 4             System.Runtime.Serialization.Formatters.Binary.BinaryFormatter serializer =
 5 
 6             new System.Runtime.Serialization.Formatters.Binary.BinaryFormatter();
 7 
 8             using (System.IO.MemoryStream memStream = new System.IO.MemoryStream())
 9             {
10                 serializer.Serialize(memStream, request);
11 
12                 return memStream.ToArray();
13             }
14         }
15 
16 
17         public static object DeSerializeBinary(byte[] data)
18         {
19             using (System.IO.MemoryStream memStream = new System.IO.MemoryStream(data))
20             {
21                 System.Runtime.Serialization.Formatters.Binary.BinaryFormatter deserializer =
22 
23                 new System.Runtime.Serialization.Formatters.Binary.BinaryFormatter();
24 
25                 return deserializer.Deserialize(memStream);
26             }
27         }
28 
29         static void SerializeTest()
30         {
31             var groupInfo = new GroupInfo()
32             {
33                 GroupID = 1,
34                 IsTemporary = false,
35                 Name = "yswenli group",
36                 Created = DateTimeHelper.Now,
37                 Creator = new UserInfo()
38                 {
39 
40                     ID = 1,
41                     Birthday = DateTimeHelper.Now.AddYears(-100),
42                     UserName = "yswenli"
43                 },
44                 Users = new System.Collections.Generic.List<UserInfo>()
45                 {
46                     new UserInfo()
47                     {
48 
49                         ID = 1,
50                         Birthday = DateTimeHelper.Now.AddYears(-100),
51                         UserName = "yswenli"
52                     }
53                 }
54             };
55 
56             var count = 100000;
57             var len1 = 0;
58             var len2 = 0;
59 
60             Stopwatch sw = new Stopwatch();
61             sw.Start();
62 
63             List<byte[]> list = new List<byte[]>();
64             for (int i = 0; i < count; i++)
65             {
66                 var bytes = SerializeBinary(groupInfo);
67                 len1 = bytes.Length;
68                 list.Add(bytes);
69             }
70             ConsoleHelper.WriteLine($"BinaryFormatter实体序列化平均:{count * 1000 / sw.ElapsedMilliseconds} 次/秒");
71 
72             sw.Restart();
73             for (int i = 0; i < count; i++)
74             {
75                 var obj = DeSerializeBinary(list[i]);
76             }
77             ConsoleHelper.WriteLine($"BinaryFormatter实体反序列化平均:{count * 1000 / sw.ElapsedMilliseconds} 次/秒");
78             ConsoleHelper.WriteLine($"BinaryFormatter序列化生成bytes大小:{len1 * count * 1.0 / 1024 / 1024} Mb");
79             list.Clear();
80             sw.Restart();
81 
82             for (int i = 0; i < count; i++)
83             {
84                 var bytes = RPC.Serialize.ParamsSerializeUtil.Serialize(groupInfo);
85                 len2 = bytes.Length;
86                 list.Add(bytes);
87             }
88             ConsoleHelper.WriteLine($"ParamsSerializeUtil实体序列化平均:{count * 1000 / sw.ElapsedMilliseconds} 次/秒");
89             sw.Restart();
90             for (int i = 0; i < count; i++)
91             {
92                 int os = 0;
93 
94                 var obj = RPC.Serialize.ParamsSerializeUtil.Deserialize(groupInfo.GetType(), list[i], ref os);
95             }
96             ConsoleHelper.WriteLine($"ParamsSerializeUtil实体反序列化平均:{count * 1000 / sw.ElapsedMilliseconds} 次/秒");
97             ConsoleHelper.WriteLine($"ParamsSerializeUtil序列化生成bytes大小:{len2 * count * 1.0 / 1024 / 1024} Mb");
98             sw.Stop();
99         }
View Code

        运行结果:

 

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