新手RoR十分钟初体验Step By Step

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新手RoR十分钟初体验Step By Step

阿敏总司令 2007-02-08 21:28:00 浏览893
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http://yulimin.javaeye.com/blog/35929

关键字: rails   Ruby Rails RoR    

新手RoR十分钟初体验Step By Step

声明一下,这是个新手启动的体验文章,高手不要看了。。。:)

1、安装Ruby
Windows用户去 http://rubyforge.org/http://rubyforge.org/projects/rubyinstaller/ 下载 One-Click Installer - Windows 安装即可,最新版1.8.5-21

2、测试是否安装成功
建议一个Test.rb文件,内容如下

  1. hello = "Hello Ruby World."  
  2. puts hello  

在命令行下运行 ruby Test.rb ,注意安装时%RUBY_HOME%/bin已经设置在你的PATH中了,检查一下即可,运行正确的话就会显示
Hello Ruby World.
结果出来

也可以启动FreeRIDE,新建一个文件,保存,按F5就可以运行得到结果了。在FreeRIDE的Edit菜单==>Preferences...==>Debugger/Run的右边,选中Run process in terminal,运行时可以打开新的窗口来查看,默认在FreeRIDE下面显示结果。

3、利用gem安装其它模块
在命令行下运行 gem install rails
安装提示与结果
Install required dependency activesupport? [Yn]  y
Install required dependency activerecord? [Yn]  y
Install required dependency actionpack? [Yn]  y
Install required dependency actionmailer? [Yn]  y
Install required dependency actionwebservice? [Yn]  y
Successfully installed rails-1.1.6
Successfully installed activesupport-1.3.1
Successfully installed activerecord-1.14.4
Successfully installed actionpack-1.12.5
Successfully installed actionmailer-1.2.5
Successfully installed actionwebservice-1.1.6
Installing ri documentation for activesupport-1.3.1...
Installing ri documentation for activerecord-1.14.4...
Installing ri documentation for actionpack-1.12.5...
Installing ri documentation for actionmailer-1.2.5...
Installing ri documentation for actionwebservice-1.1.6...
Installing RDoc documentation for activesupport-1.3.1...
Installing RDoc documentation for activerecord-1.14.4...
Installing RDoc documentation for actionpack-1.12.5...
Installing RDoc documentation for actionmailer-1.2.5...
Installing RDoc documentation for actionwebservice-1.1.6...

再运行gem list检查一下看是否安装上去了,会有一堆列表显示,新的也在里面,安装前后各gem list一下,就可以对比得到以下结果

4、安装后各模块介绍
actionmailer (1.2.5) 邮件分发与测试模块,类似Java里的JavaMail的东东
actionpack (1.12.5) 类似于Web的MVC中的V与C
actionwebservice (1.1.6) Web Service支持
activerecord (1.14.4) ORM工具,类似Java中的Hibernate之类的
activesupport (1.3.1) Rails框架所依赖的一些基础工具类
rails (1.1.6) Web应用框架Rails包含模板引擎,控制层及ORM

5、默认安装后的模块有
fxri (0.3.3)
    Graphical interface to the RI documentation, with search engine.
fxruby (1.6.1, 1.2.6)
    FXRuby is the Ruby binding to the FOX GUI toolkit.
log4r (1.0.5) 日志库,Java中就象Log4J或Jakarta的Commons-Logging
rake (0.7.1) 类似make的工具,Java中就象Ant或Maven
sources (0.0.1)
    This package provides download sources for remote gem installation
win32-clipboard (0.4.0)
    A package for interacting with the Windows clipboard
win32-dir (0.3.0)
    Extra constants and methods for the Dir class on Windows.
win32-eventlog (0.4.1)
    Interface for the MS Windows Event Log.
win32-file (0.5.2)
    Extra or redefined methods for the File class on Windows.
win32-file-stat (1.2.2)
    A File::Stat class tailored to MS Windows
win32-process (0.4.2)
    Adds fork, wait, wait2, waitpid, waitpid2 and a special kill method
win32-sapi (0.1.3)
    An interface to the MS SAPI (Sound API) library.
win32-sound (0.4.0)
    A package for playing with sound on Windows.
windows-pr (0.5.1)
    Windows functions and constants predefined via Win32API

6、创建Web应用
在命令行下运行 rails rorweb ,会在rorweb目录下创建相应的一堆完整的Web应用的目录结构,然后你应该做的就是写你的程序了。
      create
      create  app/controllers
      create  app/helpers
      create  app/models
      create  app/views/layouts
      create  config/environments
      create  components
      create  db
      create  doc
      create  lib
      create  lib/tasks
      create  log
      create  public/images
      create  public/javascripts
      create  public/stylesheets
      create  script/performance
      create  script/process
      create  test/fixtures
      create  test/functional
      create  test/integration
      create  test/mocks/development
      create  test/mocks/test
      create  test/unit
      create  vendor
      create  vendor/plugins
      create  tmp/sessions
      create  tmp/sockets
      create  tmp/cache
      create  Rakefile
      create  README
      create  app/controllers/application.rb
      create  app/helpers/application_helper.rb
      create  test/test_helper.rb
      create  config/database.yml
      create  config/routes.rb
      create  public/.htaccess
      create  config/boot.rb
      create  config/environment.rb
      create  config/environments/production.rb
      create  config/environments/development.rb
      create  config/environments/test.rb
      create  script/about
      create  script/breakpointer
      create  script/console
      create  script/destroy
      create  script/generate
      create  script/performance/benchmarker
      create  script/performance/profiler
      create  script/process/reaper
      create  script/process/spawner
      create  script/runner
      create  script/server
      create  script/plugin
      create  public/dispatch.rb
      create  public/dispatch.cgi
      create  public/dispatch.fcgi
      create  public/404.html
      create  public/500.html
      create  public/index.html
      create  public/favicon.ico
      create  public/robots.txt
      create  public/images/rails.png
      create  public/javascripts/prototype.js
      create  public/javascripts/effects.js
      create  public/javascripts/dragdrop.js
      create  public/javascripts/controls.js
      create  public/javascripts/application.js
      create  doc/README_FOR_APP
      create  log/server.log
      create  log/production.log
      create  log/development.log
      create  log/test.log

7、启动Web应用
进入rorweb目录,运行 ruby script/server 启动之,信息如下
=> Booting WEBrick...
=> Rails application started on http://0.0.0.0:3000
=> Ctrl-C to shutdown server; call with --help for options
[2006-11-25 08:47:44] INFO  WEBrick 1.3.1
[2006-11-25 08:47:44] INFO  ruby 1.8.4 (2006-04-14) [i386-mswin32]
[2006-11-25 08:47:44] INFO  WEBrick::HTTPServer#start: pid=2564 port=3000

默认webrick服务器启用了3000端口,访问一下 http://localhost:3000 ,打开后可以看到如下之类的信息。
Welcome aboard
You’re riding the Rails!
About your application’s environment
点击查看:
Ruby version 1.8.4 (i386-mswin32)
RubyGems version 0.9.0
Rails version 1.1.6
Active Record version 1.14.4
Action Pack version 1.12.5
Action Web Service version 1.1.6
Action Mailer version 1.2.5
Active Support version 1.3.1
Application root X:/OpenSource/Ruby/rorweb
Environment development
Database adapter mysql

关于webrick服务器更多的信息可以访问 http://www.webrick.org/

8、写一个HelloRoR的Web程序
打开rorweb/app目录,可以看到四个子目录
controllers
helpers
models
views
一看就知道是什么作用了吧:)

仍在rorweb目录,运行 ruby script/generate controller HelloRoR 可以看到如下的创建信息
      exists  app/controllers/
      exists  app/helpers/
      create  app/views/hello_ro_r
      exists  test/functional/
      create  app/controllers/hello_ro_r_controller.rb
      create  test/functional/hello_ro_r_controller_test.rb
      create  app/helpers/hello_ro_r_helper.rb

创建一个app/views/hello_ro_r目录及三个文件

打开 hello_ro_r_controller.rb 进行编辑,增加内容后全部如下:

ruby 代码 
  1. class HelloRoRController < ApplicationController   
  2.  def index   
  3.   render_text "Hello RoR World"  
  4.  end  
  5.  def rails   
  6.   render_text "Hello Rails"  
  7.  end  
  8. end  

访问 http://localhost:3000/hello_ro_r/ 就可以看到Hello RoR World结果了
访问 http://localhost:3000/hello_ro_r/rails 就可以看到Hello Rails结果了

注意是 hello_ro_r 不是HelloRoR,默认是小写,并写大小写之间用_分隔了,要注意一下,如果要进行对应,就全部小写建立应用,如:
运行 ruby script/generate controller helloror ,这样就是生成 helloror_controller.rb 了,然后访问 http://localhost:3000/helloror/

其它:1.8.4与1.8.5的区别
1.8.4
win32-clipboard (0.4.0)
win32-eventlog (0.4.1)
win32-process (0.4.2)
windows-pr (0.5.1)
1.8.5
win32-clipboard (0.4.1)
win32-eventlog (0.4.2)
win32-process (0.5.1)
windows-pr (0.5.3, 0.5.1)

1.8.5的升级:gem install rails
Bulk updating Gem source index for: http://gems.rubyforge.org
Install required dependency activesupport? [Yn]  y
Install required dependency activerecord? [Yn]  y
Install required dependency actionpack? [Yn]  y
Install required dependency actionmailer? [Yn]  y
Install required dependency actionwebservice? [Yn]  y
Successfully installed rails-1.1.6
Successfully installed activesupport-1.3.1
Successfully installed activerecord-1.14.4
Successfully installed actionpack-1.12.5
Successfully installed actionmailer-1.2.5
Successfully installed actionwebservice-1.1.6
Installing ri documentation for activesupport-1.3.1...
While generating documentation for activesupport-1.3.1
... MESSAGE:   Unhandled special: Special: type=17, text="<!-- HI -->"
... RDOC args: --ri --op F:/OpenSource/RoR/Ruby/lib/ruby/gems/1.8/doc/activesupport-1.3.1/ri --quiet lib
(continuing with the rest of the installation)
Installing ri documentation for activerecord-1.14.4...
Installing ri documentation for actionpack-1.12.5...
While generating documentation for actionpack-1.12.5
... MESSAGE:   Unhandled special: Special: type=17, text="<!-- The header part of this layout -->"
... RDOC args: --ri --op F:/OpenSource/RoR/Ruby/lib/ruby/gems/1.8/doc/actionpack-1.12.5/ri --quiet lib
(continuing with the rest of the installation)
Installing ri documentation for actionmailer-1.2.5...
Installing ri documentation for actionwebservice-1.1.6...
Installing RDoc documentation for activesupport-1.3.1...
Installing RDoc documentation for activerecord-1.14.4...
Installing RDoc documentation for actionpack-1.12.5...
Installing RDoc documentation for actionmailer-1.2.5...
Installing RDoc documentation for actionwebservice-1.1.6...

9、中文截取问题测试
http://my.opera.com/sawpad/blog/show.dml/235183
从以上地址拿到程序放到 rorweb/lib/ 目录下

它的示例里有问题,我回复了它,可以在程序里调用如下,凑合着用,至少不会乱码:

ruby 代码

 

 

  1. u = USCutter.new("GBK")   
  2. u1 = USCutter.new("GBK")   
  3. u2 = USCutter.new("GBK")   
  4. s = "we love 中文截取问题"  
  5. s1 = u.cut(s,0,10)   
  6. s2 = u1.cut(s,0,11)   
  7. s3 = u2.cut(s,0,12)   
  8. puts s1   
  9. puts s2   
  10. puts s3  

记得JavaEye上线时也是乱码问题,现在解决了的,原来我给Robbin写过用JavaScript来解决乱码的问题,不知道Robbin后来如何解决的,搜了一下,没有发现解决方案?

10、接下来就是连接数据库做一个完整的开发之类的,待续。。。

 

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