C#多线程技术总结(同步)

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C#多线程技术总结(同步)

技术小牛人 2017-11-15 18:35:00 浏览856
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二、串行(同步):

1.lock、Monitor--注意锁定的对象必需是引用类型(string类型除外)

示例:

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        private static object syncObject = new object();
 
        private static void TaskWork(object i)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("我是任务:{0}",i);
            lock (syncObject)
            {
                Thread.Sleep(1000);
                Console.WriteLine("我是任务:{0},线程ID:{1}",i,Thread.CurrentThread.ManagedThreadId);
            }
 
            try
            {
                Monitor.Enter(syncObject);
                Console.WriteLine("我是任务:{0},线程ID:{1}", i, Thread.CurrentThread.ManagedThreadId);
            }
            finally
            {
                Monitor.Exit(syncObject);
            }
        }
 
//调用
Task.Factory.StartNew(TaskWork,1);
Task.Factory.StartNew(TaskWork, 2);

2.Interlocked

示例:

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int i=1;
Interlocked.Increment(ref i); //增量+1=2;
Console.WriteLine("i当前的值:{0}", i);
 
Interlocked.Decrement(ref i); //减量-1=0;
Console.WriteLine("i当前的值:{0}", i);
 
Interlocked.Exchange(ref i, 2);//赋值=2;
Console.WriteLine("i当前的值:{0}",i);
 
Interlocked.CompareExchange(ref i, 10, 2);//比较交换值,当i=2时,则将i赋值为10;
Console.WriteLine("i当前的值:{0}", i);

3.Mutex--可以实现进程间的同步,甚至是两个远程进程间的同步

示例:

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var t1 = new Task(() =>
{
    Console.WriteLine("我是第一个任务!");
    Mutex m = new Mutex(false"test");
    m.WaitOne();
    Console.WriteLine("第一个任务完成!");
    m.ReleaseMutex();
});
 
var t2 = new Task(() =>
{
    Console.WriteLine("我是第二个任务!");
    Mutex m = new Mutex(false"test");
    m.WaitOne();
    Console.WriteLine("第二个任务完成!");
    m.ReleaseMutex();
});
 
t1.Start();
t2.Start();

 4.ReaderWriterLock 、ReaderWriterLockSlim--如果在某一时刻资源并没有获取写的独占权,那么可以获得多个读的访问权,单个写入的独占权,如果某一时刻已经获取了写入的独占权,那么其它读取的访问权必须进行等待. 

示例:

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    static ReaderWriterLock rwLock = new ReaderWriterLock();
 
    static void Read(object state)
    {
        Console.WriteLine("我是读线程,线程ID是:{0}",Thread.CurrentThread.ManagedThreadId);
        rwLock.AcquireReaderLock(Timeout.Infinite);//无限期等待,需要显式调用ReleaseReaderLock释放锁
        var readList = state as IEnumerable<int>;
        foreach (int item in readList)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("读取当前的值为:{0}", item);
            Thread.Sleep(500);
        }
        Console.WriteLine("读完成,线程ID是:{0}", Thread.CurrentThread.ManagedThreadId);
        rwLock.ReleaseReaderLock();
         
    }
 
 
    static void Write(object state)
    {
        Console.WriteLine("我是写线程,线程ID是:{0}", Thread.CurrentThread.ManagedThreadId);
        rwLock.AcquireWriterLock(Timeout.Infinite); //无限期等待,需要显式调用ReleaseWriterLock释放锁
        var writeList = state as List<int>;
        int lastCount=writeList.Count();
        for (int i = lastCount; i <= 10+lastCount; i++)
        {
            writeList.Add(i);
            Console.WriteLine("写入当前值:{0}",i);
            Thread.Sleep(500);
        }
        Console.WriteLine("写完成,线程ID是:{0}", Thread.CurrentThread.ManagedThreadId);
        rwLock.ReleaseWriterLock();
    }
 
//调用:
        var rwList = new List<int>();
 
        var t1 = new Thread(Write);
        var t2 = new Thread(Read);
        var t3 = new Thread(Write);
        var t4 = new Thread(Read);
         
        t1.Start(rwList);
        t2.Start(rwList);
        t3.Start(rwList);
        t4.Start(rwList);

 

5.SynchronizationAttribute--确保某个类的实例在同一时刻只能被一个线程访问,类的定义要求:A.类上必需标记SynchronizationAttribute特性,B.类必需继承自System.ContextBoundObject对象

示例:

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    [Synchronization(SynchronizationAttribute.REQUIRED,true)]
    public class Account : System.ContextBoundObject
    {
        private static int _balance;
        public int Blance
        {
            get
            {
                return _balance;
            }
        }
 
        public Account()
        {
            _balance = 1000;
        }
 
        public void WithDraw(string name,object money)
        {
            if ((int)money <= _balance)
            {
                Thread.Sleep(2000);
                _balance = _balance - (int)money;
                Console.WriteLine("{0} 取钱成功!余额={1}", name, _balance);
            }
            else
            {
                Console.WriteLine("{0} 取钱失败!余额不足!", name);
            }
        }
    }
 
//调用:
            var account = new Account();
            Parallel.Invoke(() =>
            {
                account.WithDraw("张三",600);
 
            }, () =>
            {
                account.WithDraw("李四",600);
            });

6.MethodImplAttribute--使整个方法上锁,直到方法返回,才释放锁

示例:

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    public class Account
    {
        private static int _balance;
        public int Blance
        {
            get
            {
                return _balance;
            }
        }
 
        public Account()
        {
            _balance = 1000;
        }
 
        [MethodImpl(MethodImplOptions.Synchronized)]
        public void WithDraw(string name,object money)
        {
            if ((int)money <= _balance)
            {
                Thread.Sleep(2000);
                _balance = _balance - (int)money;
                Console.WriteLine("{0} 取钱成功!余额={1}", name, _balance);
            }
            else
            {
                Console.WriteLine("{0} 取钱失败!余额不足!", name);
            }
        }
    }
 
//调用
            var account = new Account();
            Parallel.Invoke(() =>
            {
                account.WithDraw("张三",600);
 
            }, () =>
            {
                account.WithDraw("李四",600);
            });

7.AutoResetEvent、ManualResetEvent、ManualResetEventSlim--调用WaitOne、WaitAny或WaitAll来使线程等待事件,调用Set方法发送信号,事件将变为终止状态,等待的线程被唤醒

示例:

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AutoResetEvent arEvent = new AutoResetEvent(false);//默认为无信号,处于非终止状态
Task.Factory.StartNew((o) => {
    for (int i = 1; i <= 10; i++)
    {
        Console.WriteLine("循环第{0}次",i);
    }
    arEvent.Set();//发送信号,处于终止状态
},arEvent);
 
 
arEvent.WaitOne();//等待信号,收到信号后则继续下面的执行
 
Console.WriteLine("我是主线程,我继续执行!");
Console.Read();

 8.Sempaphore、SemaphoreSlim(不可跨进程)--信号量,可实现线程、进程间同步

示例:

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    public class WashRoom
    {
        private readonly Semaphore sem;
 
        public WashRoom(int maxUseableCount)
        {
            sem = new Semaphore(maxUseableCount, maxUseableCount, "WC");
        }
 
        public void Use(int i)
        {
            Task.Factory.StartNew(() =>
                {
                    Console.WriteLine("第{0}个人等待进入", i);
                    // WaitOne:如果还有“空位”,则占位,如果没有空位,则等待;
                    sem.WaitOne();
                    Console.WriteLine("第{0}个人成功进入,使用中", i);
                    // 模拟线程执行了一些操作
                    Thread.Sleep(100);
                    Console.WriteLine("第{0}个人用完,离开了", i);
                    // Release:释放一个“空位”
                    sem.Release();
                });
        }
    }
 
//调用:
            var wc = new WashRoom(5);
            for (int i = 1; i <= 7; i++)
            {
                wc.Use(i);
            }

9.Barrier--屏障,使多个任务能够采用并行方式依据某种算法在多个阶段中协同工作,即:将一个阶段的事情分成多个线程来异步执行,执行完毕后再同时进入下一个阶段

示例:

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int taskSize = 5;
Barrier barrier = new Barrier(taskSize, (b) =>
{
    Console.WriteLine(string.Format("{0}当前阶段编号:{1}{0}""-".PadRight(15, '-'), b.CurrentPhaseNumber));
});
 
var tasks = new Task[taskSize];
 
for (int i = 0; i < taskSize; i++)
{
    tasks[i] = Task.Factory.StartNew((n) =>
    {
        Console.WriteLine("Task : #{0}   ---->  处理了第一部份数据。", n);
        barrier.SignalAndWait();
 
        Console.WriteLine("Task : #{0}   ---->  处理了第二部份数据。", n);
        barrier.SignalAndWait();
 
        Console.WriteLine("Task : #{0}   ---->  处理了第三部份数据。", n);
        barrier.SignalAndWait();
 
    }, i);
}
 
Task.WaitAll(tasks);

10.SpinLock--自旋锁,仅限锁定的时间较短

示例:

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            SpinLock sLock = new SpinLock();
            int num = 0;
            Action action = () =>
            {
                bool lockTaken = false;
                for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++)
                {
                    lockTaken = false;
                    try
                    {
                        sLock.Enter(ref lockTaken);
                        Console.WriteLine("{0}+1={1} ---线程ID:[{2}]", num, ++num,Thread.CurrentThread.ManagedThreadId);
                        Thread.Sleep(new Random().Next(9));
                    }
                    finally
                    {
                        //真正获取之后,才释放
                        if (lockTaken) sLock.Exit();
                    }
                }
            };
 
//多线程调用:
            Parallel.Invoke(action, action, action);
            Console.WriteLine("合计:{0}", num);

11.SpinWait--自旋等待,轻量级

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Thread.Sleep(1000);//线程等待1S;
Console.WriteLine(DateTime.Now.ToString("yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss.fff"));
 
SpinWait.SpinUntil(() => false, 1000);//自旋等待1S
Console.WriteLine(DateTime.Now.ToString("yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss.fff"));
 
Thread.SpinWait(100000);//指定CPU的循环次数,时间间隔处决于处理器的运行速度,一般不建议使用
Console.WriteLine(DateTime.Now.ToString("yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss.fff"));

12.CountdownEvent--与Sempaphore功能类似,但CountdownEvent支持动态调整信号计数

 示例:

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        static void TimeLimitShopping(int custCount,int times,CountdownEvent countdown)
        {
            var customers = Enumerable.Range(1, custCount);
            foreach (var customer in customers)
            {
                int currentCustomer = customer;
               Task.Factory.StartNew(()=>
                {
                    SpinWait.SpinUntil(() => false, 1000);
                    Console.WriteLine("第{0}波客户购买情况:Customer-{1}-已购买.", times, currentCustomer);
                    countdown.Signal();
                });
                //countdown.AddCount();
            }
        }
 
 
//调用:
var countdown = new CountdownEvent(5);
                TimeLimitShopping(5, 1, countdown);
                countdown.Wait();
 
 
                countdown.Reset(10);
                TimeLimitShopping(10, 2, countdown);
                countdown.Wait();
 
                countdown.Reset(20);
                TimeLimitShopping(20, 3, countdown);
                countdown.Wait();

 最后分享在System.Collections.Concurrent命名空间下的几个并发集合类:

ConcurrentBag<T>:表示线程安全的无序集合;

ConcurrentDictionary<T>:表示线程安全的多个键值对集合;

ConcurrentQueue<T>:表示线程安全的先进先出集合;

ConcurrentStack<T>:表示线程安全的后进先出集合;

线程的几个状态(以下图片来源于这篇文章:http://www.cnblogs.com/edisonchou/p/4848131.html):

参考以下相关文章:

归纳一下:C#线程同步的几种方法

C#编程总结(三)线程同步

 

本文转自 梦在旅途 博客园博客,原文链接: http://www.cnblogs.com/zuowj/p/4910512.html ,如需转载请自行联系原作者

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