(一)简单介绍

Tomcat支持三种接收请求的处理方式:BIO、NIO、APR 。

BIO由于每个请求都要创建一个线程来处理,线程开销比较大,不能再高并发的场景,性能也是最低的。

NIO是一个基于缓冲区、并能提供非阻塞I/O操作的Java API,比传统的bio更好的并发性能。

APR(Apache Portable Run-time libraries)简单理解,就是从操作系统级别解决异步IO问题,大幅度的提高服务器的处理和响应性能, 也是Tomcat运行高并发应用的首选模式。 启用这种模式稍微麻烦一些,需要安装一些依赖库,以下就是安装所需的条件:

  1,最新的apr

  2,最新的apr-util

  3,tomcat-native.tar.gz(在tomcat/bin/下有相应的安装tar包


(二)安装步骤

 1,安装相应的依赖库

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[root@ittestserver1 opt]# yum install -y apr-devel openssl-devel gcc make
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Determining fastest mirrors
 * base: mirrors.163.com
 * epel: mirror01.idc.hinet.net
 * extras: mirrors.163.com
 * updates: mirrors.cn99.com
base                                                                                                          | 3.7 kB     00:00     
epel                                                                                                          | 4.3 kB     00:00     
epel/primary_db                                                                                               | 5.9 MB     00:01     
extras                                                                                                        | 3.4 kB     00:00     
jenkins                                                                                                       | 2.9 kB     00:00     
jenkins/primary_db                                                                                            |  19 kB     00:01     
updates                                                                                                       | 3.4 kB     00:00     
updates/primary_db                                                                                            | 5.4 MB     00:02     
Setting up Install Process
Package apr-devel-1.3.9-5.el6_2.x86_64 already installed and latest version
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package gcc.x86_64 0:4.4.7-16.el6 will be updated
--> Processing Dependency: gcc = 4.4.7-16.el6 for package: gcc-c++-4.4.7-16.el6.x86_64
---> Package gcc.x86_64 0:4.4.7-17.el6 will be an update
--> Processing Dependency: libgomp = 4.4.7-17.el6 for package: gcc-4.4.7-17.el6.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: cpp = 4.4.7-17.el6 for package: gcc-4.4.7-17.el6.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libgcc >= 4.4.7-17.el6 for package: gcc-4.4.7-17.el6.x86_64
  gcc.x86_64 0:4.4.7-17.el6              make.x86_64 1:3.81-23.el6              openssl-devel.x86_64 0:1.0.1e-48.el6_8.4             
Dependency Updated:
  cpp.x86_64 0:4.4.7-17.el6                   gcc-c++.x86_64 0:4.4.7-17.el6            libgcc.x86_64 0:4.4.7-17.el6                  
  libgomp.x86_64 0:4.4.7-17.el6               libstdc++.x86_64 0:4.4.7-17.el6          libstdc++-devel.x86_64 0:4.4.7-17.el6         
  openssl.x86_64 0:1.0.1e-48.el6_8.4         
Complete!

2,安装apr动态库,将最新版本的apr下载到目录下(http://apr.apache.org)  目前最新的是apr-1.5.2.tar.gz

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[root@Monitor install]# wget http://mirrors.cnnic.cn/apache//apr/apr-1.5.2.tar.gz
--2017-03-02 17:17:32--  http://mirrors.cnnic.cn/apache//apr/apr-1.5.2.tar.gz
正在解析主机 mirrors.cnnic.cn... 218.241.113.17
正在连接 mirrors.cnnic.cn|218.241.113.17|:80... 已连接。
已发出 HTTP 请求,正在等待回应... 200 OK
长度:1031613 (1007K) [application/octet-stream]
正在保存至: “apr-1.5.2.tar.gz”
100%[===========================================================================================>] 1,031,613   1.69M/s   in 0.6s    
2017-03-02 17:17:33 (1.69 MB/s) - 已保存 “apr-1.5.2.tar.gz” [1031613/1031613])
 
[root@Monitor install]# tar xf apr-1.5.2.tar.gz 
[root@Monitor install]# cd apr-1.5.2
[root@Monitor apr-1.5.2]# ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/apr
 
checking build system type... x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu
checking host system type... x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu
checking target system type... x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu
Configuring APR library
Platform: x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu
checking for working mkdir -p... yes
APR Version: 1.5.2
checking for chosen layout... apr
checking for gcc... gcc
checking whether the C compiler works... yes
checking for C compiler default output file name... a.out
checking for suffix of executables... 
checking whether we are cross compiling... no
checking for suffix of object files... o
checking whether we are using the GNU C compiler... yes
checking whether gcc accepts -g... yes
checking for gcc option to accept ISO C89... no
Restore user-defined environment settings...
  restoring CPPFLAGS to ""
  setting EXTRA_CPPFLAGS to "-DLINUX -D_REENTRANT -D_GNU_SOURCE"
  restoring CFLAGS to ""
  setting EXTRA_CFLAGS to "-g -O2 -pthread"
  restoring LDFLAGS to ""
  setting EXTRA_LDFLAGS to ""
  restoring LIBS to ""
  setting EXTRA_LIBS to "-lrt -lcrypt  -lpthread"
  restoring INCLUDES to ""
  setting EXTRA_INCLUDES to ""
configure: creating ./config.status
config.status: creating Makefile
config.status: creating include/apr.h
config.status: creating build/apr_rules.mk
config.status: creating build/pkg/pkginfo
config.status: creating apr-1-config
config.status: creating apr.pc
config.status: creating test/Makefile
config.status: creating test/internal/Makefile
config.status: creating include/arch/unix/apr_private.h
config.status: executing libtool commands
rm: cannot remove `libtoolT': No such file or directory
config.status: executing default commands
 
[root@Monitor apr-1.5.2]# make && make install
make[1]: Entering directory `/tmp/install/apr-1.5.2'
/tmp/install/apr-1.5.2/build/mkdir.sh tools
/bin/sh /tmp/install/apr-1.5.2/libtool --silent --mode=compile gcc -g -O2 -pthread   -DHAVE_CONFIG_H  -DLINUX -D_REENTRANT -D_GNU_SOURCE   -I./include -I/tmp/install/apr-1.5.2/include/arch/unix -I./include/arch/unix -I/tmp/install/apr-1.5.2/include/arch/unix -I/tmp/install/apr-1.5.2/include -I/tmp/install/apr-1.5.2/include/private -I/tmp/install/apr-1.5.2/include/private  -o tools/gen_test_char.lo -c tools/gen_test_char.c && touch tools/gen_test_char.lo
/bin/sh /tmp/install/apr-1.5.2/libtool --silent --mode=link gcc -g -O2 -pthread   -DHAVE_CONFIG_H  -DLINUX -D_REENTRANT -D_GNU_SOURCE   -I./include -I/tmp/install/apr-1.5.2/include/arch/unix -I./include/arch/unix -I/tmp/install/apr-1.5.2/include/arch/unix -I/tmp/install/apr-1.5.2/include -I/tmp/install/apr-1.5.2/include/private -I/tmp/install/apr-1.5.2/include/private   -no-install    -o tools/gen_test_char tools/gen_test_char.lo    -lrt -lcrypt  -lpthread
/tmp/install/apr-1.5.2/build/mkdir.sh include/private


3,下载安装apr-util(http://apr.apache.org/download.cgi)

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[root@Monitor install]# wget http://mirrors.cnnic.cn/apache//apr/apr-util-1.5.4.tar.gz
--2017-03-02 17:23:09--  http://mirrors.cnnic.cn/apache//apr/apr-util-1.5.4.tar.gz
正在解析主机 mirrors.cnnic.cn... 218.241.113.17
正在连接 mirrors.cnnic.cn|218.241.113.17|:80... 已连接。
已发出 HTTP 请求,正在等待回应... 200 OK
长度:874044 (854K) [application/octet-stream]
正在保存至: “apr-util-1.5.4.tar.gz”
100%[===========================================================================================>] 874,044     1.68M/s   in 0.5s    
2017-03-02 17:23:10 (1.68 MB/s) - 已保存 “apr-util-1.5.4.tar.gz” [874044/874044])
[root@Monitor install]# tar xf apr-util-1.5.4.tar.gz 
[root@Monitor install]# cd apr-util-1.5.4
[root@Monitor apr-util-1.5.4]# ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/apr-util --with-apr=/usr/local/apr/
[root@Monitor apr-util-1.5.4]# make && make install
make[1]: Entering directory `/tmp/install/apr-util-1.5.4'
/bin/sh /usr/local/apr/build-1/libtool --silent --mode=compile gcc -g -O2 -pthread   -DHAVE_CONFIG_H  -DLINUX -D_REENTRANT -D_GNU_SOURCE   -I/tmp/install/apr-util-1.5.4/include -I/tmp/install/apr-util-1.5.4/include/private  -I/usr/local/apr/include/apr-1    -o buckets/apr_brigade.lo -c buckets/apr_brigade.c && touch buckets/apr_brigade.lo
If you ever happen to want to link against installed libraries
in a given directory, LIBDIR, you must either use libtool, and
specify the full pathname of the library, or use the `-LLIBDIR'
flag during linking and do at least one of the following:
   - add LIBDIR to the `LD_LIBRARY_PATH' environment variable
     during execution
   - add LIBDIR to the `LD_RUN_PATH' environment variable
     during linking
   - use the `-Wl,-rpath -Wl,LIBDIR' linker flag
   - have your system administrator add LIBDIR to `/etc/ld.so.conf'
See any operating system documentation about shared libraries for
more information, such as the ld(1) and ld.so(8) manual pages.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
/usr/bin/install -c -m 644 aprutil.exp /usr/local/apr-util/lib
/usr/bin/install -c -m 755 apu-config.out /usr/local/apr-util/bin/apu-1-config
[root@Monitor apr-util-1.5.4]# ll /usr/local/apr-util/
总用量 12
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 3月   2 17:24 bin
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 3月   2 17:24 include
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 3月   2 17:24 lib


3,安装tomcat-native。

方法一:源码安装,不过安装过程中会有一些依赖,特别麻烦,我上次在这个问题上一直有报错,浪费掉一两天的时间才解决。一般tomcat的/bin/下都会有这个安装文件。

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[root@Monitor bin]# cd /usr/local/apache-tomcat-7.0.63/bin
[root@Monitor bin]# ls
bootstrap.jar       commons-daemon.jar            daemon.sh         setclasspath.sh  startup.sh                tool-wrapper.bat
catalina.bat        commons-daemon-native.tar.gz  digest.bat        shutdown.bat     tomcat-juli.jar           tool-wrapper.sh
catalina.sh         configtest.bat                digest.sh         shutdown.sh      tomcat-native-1.1.33-src  version.bat
catalina-tasks.xml  configtest.sh                 setclasspath.bat  startup.bat      tomcat-native.tar.gz      version.sh
[root@Monitor bin]# tar xf tomcat-native.tar.gz
[root@Monitor bin]# cd tomcat-native-1.1.33-src/jni/native/
[root@Monitor native]# ./configure --with-apr=/usr/local/apr/bin/apr-1-config --with-java-home=/usr/java/jdk1.7.0_79/ 
[root@Monitor native]# make && make install

最后添加环境变量

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[root@ittestserver1 native]# vim /etc/profile 
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/local/apr/lib
[root@ittestserver1 native]# source /etc/profile


方法二:使用yum安装,方便快捷省时省力比较推荐。

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[root@ittestserver1]# yum list|grep tomcat-native
[root@ittestserver1 lib]# yum install tomcat-native -y
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
 * base: mirrors.163.com
 * epel: mirror01.idc.hinet.net
 * extras: mirrors.163.com
 * updates: mirrors.cn99.com
Setting up Install Process
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package tomcat-native.x86_64 0:1.1.34-1.el6 will be installed
--> Finished Dependency Resolution
Dependencies Resolved
=====================================================================================================================================
 Package                            Arch                        Version                              Repository                 Size
=====================================================================================================================================
Installing:
 tomcat-native                      x86_64                      1.1.34-1.el6                         epel                       60 k
Transaction Summary
=====================================================================================================================================
Install       1 Package(s)
Total download size: 60 k
Installed size: 165 k
Downloading Packages:
tomcat-native-1.1.34-1.el6.x86_64.rpm                                                                         |  60 kB     00:00     
Running rpm_check_debug
Running Transaction Test
Transaction Test Succeeded
Running Transaction
  Installing : tomcat-native-1.1.34-1.el6.x86_64                                                                                 1/1 
/sbin/ldconfig/usr/lib/libtcnative-1.so.0 不是符号连接
  Verifying  : tomcat-native-1.1.34-1.el6.x86_64                                                                                 1/1 
Installed:
  tomcat-native.x86_64 0:1.1.34-1.el6                                                                                                
Complete!
[root@ittestserver1 lib]# rpm -qa|grep tomcat-native
tomcat-native-1.1.34-1.el6.x86_64
unset i
unset -f pathmunge
 
配置相关的全局变量:
方法一:修改/etc/profie文件
[root@ittestserver1 lib]# vim /etc/profile
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/local/apr/lib
[root@ittestserver1 lib]# source /etc/profile
 
方法二:编辑$TOMCAT_HOME/bin/catalina.sh文件,在虚拟机启动参数JAVA_OPTS中添加
java.library.path参数,指定apr库的路径
 
[root@Monitor xn1]# vim /usr/local/tomcat_thirdmanage/bin/catalina.sh    
JAVA_OPTS="$JAVA_OPTS -Djava.library.path=/usr/local/apr/lib"
  
  
 tomcat8以下版本,需要指定运行模式

最后启动下tomcat,查看日志为启用了apr模式将protocol从HTTP/1.1改成org.apache.coyote.http11.Http11AprProtocol


查看启动日志,即为完成。

wKioL1i5GYqwyEj2AABhyT-2yF0168.png-wh_50


(三)tomcat优化

  (1)优化连接池

[root@Monitor local]# vim /usr/local/apache-tomcat-7.0.63/conf/server.xml 

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放开连接池:
    <Executor name="tomcatThreadPool" namePrefix="catalina-exec-"
        maxThreads="150" minSpareThreads="20" maxSpareThreads="50"/>
优化连接端口:
<Connector port="8080" executor="tomcatThreadPool" protocol="org.apache.coyote.http11.Http11AprProtocol"
               URIEncoding="UTF-8"
               connectionTimeout="20000"
               enableLookups="false"
               disableUploadTimeout="false"
               connectionUploadTimeout="150000"
               acceptCount="300"
               redirectPort="8443" />

 (2)修改catalina.sh防止内存溢出。

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[root@ittestserver1 opt]# vim /usr/local/tomcat/bin/catalina.sh
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
JAVA_OPTS="-server -Xms8192m  -Xmx8192m -Xss512k -XX:PermSize=1024m -XX:MaxNewSize=2048m -XX:MaxNewSize=2048m -XX:MaxPermSize=1024m -XX:+DisableExplicitGC -XX:+UseParNewGC -XX:+UseConcMarkSweepGC -XX:+CMSParallelRemarkEnabled -XX:+UseCMSCompactAtFullCollection -XX:+UseFastAccessorMethods -Djava.awt.headless=true  -Dfile.encoding=UTF-8 -Dsun.jnu.encoding=UTF-8"