oracle 11g r2 rac 安装整理 附详细步骤(亲测VMware和exsi都可以完美安装物理机自然没有问题)

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oracle 11g r2 rac 安装整理 附详细步骤(亲测VMware和exsi都可以完美安装物理机自然没有问题)

技术小牛人 2017-11-07 14:30:00 浏览1418
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由于前面安装了,由于时间关系没有来得及整理,今天闲下来,整理了安装步骤,还是活的一些收获的,下面附上步骤:

1.安装操作系统最小化安装即可

2.关闭防火墙

3.替换yum

4.添加共享磁盘

5.创建用户和用户组

6.添加用户环境变量

7.调整内核参数

8.安装依赖包

9.配置hosts

10.配置ssh 无密码访问

11.调整swap

12.配置asm共享磁盘

13.grid安装预检

14.grid安装

15.asm磁盘组创建

16.database安装

17.数据库实例创建

18.rac 状态查看和维护


esxi主机创建共享磁盘:

http://www.linuxfly.org/post/673/


VMware12上面安装11g rac:

在vmware安装目录 创建磁盘:

vmware-vdiskmanager.exe -c -s 1000Mb -a lsilogic -t 2 E:\VMwarecp\VMWARE\racsharedisk\ocr.vmdk

vmware-vdiskmanager.exe -c -s 1000Mb -a lsilogic -t 2 E:\VMwarecp\VMWARE\racsharedisk\ocr2.vmdk

vmware-vdiskmanager.exe -c -s 1000Mb -a lsilogic -t 2 E:\VMwarecp\VMWARE\racsharedisk\votingdisk.vmdk

vmware-vdiskmanager.exe -c -s 10000Mb -a lsilogic -t 2 E:\VMwarecp\VMWARE\racsharedisk\data2.vmdk

vmware-vdiskmanager.exe -c -s 5000Mb -a lsilogic -t 2 E:\VMwarecp\VMWARE\racsharedisk\backup.vmdk


编辑rac1 rac2 的vmx文件 添加:

scsi1.present = "TRUE"

scsi1.virtualDev = "lsilogic"

scsi1.sharedBus = "virtual"


scsi2.present = "TRUE"

scsi2.virtualDev = "lsilogic1"

scsi2.sharedBus = "virtual"


scsi1:1.present = "TRUE"

scsi1:1.mode = "independent-persistent"

scsi1:1.filename = "D:\VMWARE\racsharedisk\ocr.vmdk"

scsi1:1.deviceType = "plainDisk"


scsi1:2.present = "TRUE"

scsi1:2.mode = "independent-persistent"

scsi1:2.filename = "D:\VMWARE\racsharedisk\votingdisk.vmdk"

scsi1:2.deviceType = "plainDisk" 


scsi1:3.present = "TRUE"

scsi1:3.mode = "independent-persistent"

scsi1:3.filename = "D:\VMWARE\racsharedisk\data.vmdk"

scsi1:3.deviceType = "plainDisk"


scsi1:4.present = "TRUE"

scsi1:4.mode = "independent-persistent"

scsi1:4.filename = "D:\VMWARE\racsharedisk\backup.vmdk"

scsi1:4.deviceType = "plainDisk"


scsi1:5.present = "TRUE"

scsi1:5.mode = "independent-persistent"

scsi1:5.filename = "D:\VMWARE\racsharedisk\ocr2.vmdk"

scsi1:5.deviceType = "plainDisk"


scsi2:2.present = "TRUE"

scsi2:2.mode = "independent-persistent"

scsi2:2.filename = "D:\VMWARE\racsharedisk\data3.vmdk"

scsi2:2.deviceType = "plainDisk"


disk.locking = "false"

diskLib.dataCacheMaxSize = "0"

diskLib.dataCacheMaxReadAheadSize = "0"

diskLib.DataCacheMinReadAheadSize = "0"

diskLib.dataCachePageSize = "4096"

diskLib.maxUnsyncedWrites = "0"


rac1和rac2上都要创建:

1.创建用户和组:

/usr/sbin/groupadd -g 1000 oinstall

/usr/sbin/groupadd -g 1020 asmadmin

/usr/sbin/groupadd -g 1021 asmdba

/usr/sbin/groupadd -g 1022 asmoper

/usr/sbin/groupadd -g 1031 dba

/usr/sbin/groupadd -g 1032 oper

useradd -u 1100 -g oinstall -G asmadmin,asmdba,asmoper,oper,dba grid

useradd -u 1101 -g oinstall -G dba,asmdba,oper oracle

mkdir -p /u01/app/11.2.0/grid

mkdir -p /u01/app/grid

mkdir /u01/app/oracle

chown -R grid:oinstall /u01

chown oracle:oinstall /u01/app/oracle

chmod -R 775 /u01/


2.内核参数设置: 

[root@rac1 ~]# vi /etc/sysctl.conf 

kernel.msgmnb = 65536 

kernel.msgmax = 65536 

kernel.shmmax = 68719476736 

kernel.shmall = 4294967296 

fs.aio-max-nr = 1048576 

fs.file-max = 6815744 

kernel.shmall = 2097152 

kernel.shmmax = 68719476736 

kernel.shmmni = 4096 

kernel.sem = 250 32000 100 128 

net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 9000 65500 

net.core.rmem_default = 262144 

net.core.rmem_max = 4194304 

net.core.wmem_default = 262144 

net.core.wmem_max = 1048586 

net.ipv4.tcp_wmem = 262144 262144 262144 

net.ipv4.tcp_rmem = 4194304 4194304 4194304

3.配置oracle、grid用户的shell限制 

[root@rac1 ~]# vi /etc/security/limits.conf 

grid soft nproc 2047 

grid hard nproc 16384 

grid soft nofile 1024 

grid hard nofile 65536 

oracle soft nproc 2047 

oracle hard nproc 16384 

oracle soft nofile 1024 

oracle hard nofile 65536


4.配置login 

[root@rac1 ~]# vi /etc/pam.d/login 

session required pam_limits.so



5.依赖软件:

安装需要的软件包 

binutils-2.20.51.0.2-5.11.el6 (x86_64) 

compat-libcap1-1.10-1 (x86_64) 

compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-69.el6 (x86_64) 

compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-69.el6.i686 

gcc-4.4.4-13.el6 (x86_64) 

gcc-c++-4.4.4-13.el6 (x86_64) 

glibc-2.12-1.7.el6 (i686) 

glibc-2.12-1.7.el6 (x86_64) 

glibc-devel-2.12-1.7.el6 (x86_64) 

glibc-devel-2.12-1.7.el6.i686 

ksh 

libgcc-4.4.4-13.el6 (i686) 

libgcc-4.4.4-13.el6 (x86_64) 

libstdc++-4.4.4-13.el6 (x86_64) 

libstdc++-4.4.4-13.el6.i686 

libstdc++-devel-4.4.4-13.el6 (x86_64) 

libstdc++-devel-4.4.4-13.el6.i686 

libaio-0.3.107-10.el6 (x86_64) 

libaio-0.3.107-10.el6.i686 

libaio-devel-0.3.107-10.el6 (x86_64) 

libaio-devel-0.3.107-10.el6.i686 

make-3.81-19.el6 

sysstat-9.0.4-11.el6 (x86_64)

安装:

yum install gcc gcc-c++  libaio* glibc* glibc-devel* ksh libgcc* libstdc++* libstdc++-devel* make sysstat  unixODBC* compat-libstdc++-33.x86_64 elfutils-libelf-devel  glibc.i686 compat-libcap1  smartmontools unzip openssh* parted cvuqdisk -y

##cvuqdisk 这个软件是在安装grid的时候 使用fixup.sh 安装即可,yum安装不上没有关系




6.

##注意 rpm安装一定要在yum安装之后

rpm -ivh --force --nodeps libaio-0.3.106-5.i386.rpm 

rpm -ivh --force --nodeps libaio-devel-0.3.106-5.i386.rpm 

rpm -ivh --force --nodeps pdksh-5.2.14-36.el5.i386.rpm 

rpm -ivh --force --nodeps libstdc++-4.1.2-48.el5.i386.rpm 

rpm -ivh --force --nodeps libgcc-4.1.2-48.el5.i386.rpm 

rpm -ivh --force --nodeps  unixODBC-devel-2.2.11-7.1.i386.rpm

rpm -ivh --force --nodeps  compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-61.i386.rpm

rpm -ivh --force --nodeps unixODBC-2.2.11-7.1.i386.rpm 


7.配置hosts文件:

192.168.20.220 rac1

192.168.166.220 rac1-priv

192.168.20.223 rac1-vip

192.168.20.221 rac2

192.168.166.221 rac2-priv

192.168.20.224 rac2-vip

192.168.20.222 scan-ip


8.添加环境变量

Oracle_sid需要根据节点不同进行修改 

##grid变量

[root@rac1 ~]# su - grid 

[grid@rac1 ~]$ vi .bash_profile


##rac1:

export TMP=/tmp

export TMPDIR=$TMP

export ORACLE_SID=+ASM1

export ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/grid

export ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/11.2.0/grid

export PATH=/usr/sbin:$PATH

export PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/bin:$PATH

export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/lib:/lib:/usr/lib

export CLASSPATH=$ORACLE_HOME/JRE:$ORACLE_HOME/jlib:$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/jlib

umask 022


##rac2:

export TMP=/tmp

export TMPDIR=$TMP

export ORACLE_SID=+ASM2

export ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/grid

export ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/11.2.0/grid

export PATH=/usr/sbin:$PATH

export PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/bin:$PATH

export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/lib:/lib:/usr/lib

export CLASSPATH=$ORACLE_HOME/JRE:$ORACLE_HOME/jlib:$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/jlib

umask 022


##需要注意的是ORACLE_UNQNAME是数据库名,创建数据库时指定多个节点是会创建多个实例,ORACLE_SID指的是数据库实例名

##oracle 环境变量

[root@rac1 ~]# su - oracle 

[oracle@rac1 ~]$ vi .bash_profile

#rac1:

export TMP=/tmp

export TMPDIR=$TMP

export ORACLE_SID=orcl1 

export ORACLE_UNQNAME=orcl

export ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle

export ORACLE_HOME=$ORACLE_BASE/product/11.2.0/db_1

export TNS_ADMIN=$ORACLE_HOME/network/admin

export PATH=/usr/sbin:$PATH

export PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/bin:$PATH

export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/lib:/lib:/usr/lib


##rac2:

export TMP=/tmp

export TMPDIR=$TMP

export ORACLE_SID=orcl2

export ORACLE_UNQNAME=orcl

export ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle

export ORACLE_HOME=$ORACLE_BASE/product/11.2.0/db_1

export TNS_ADMIN=$ORACLE_HOME/network/admin

export PATH=/usr/sbin:$PATH

export PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/bin:$PATH

export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/lib:/lib:/usr/lib


$ source .bash_profile使配置文件生效


9.配置 rac1 rac2 中的 root  grid   oracle 三个用户直接相互无密码ssh访问

每一个用户目录下都要配置:

ssh-keygen -t rsa

ssh rac1 cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub >> authorized_keys

ssh rac2 cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub >> authorized_keys

scp authorized_keys rac2:~/.ssh/


ssh rac1 date

ssh rac2 date

ssh rac1-priv date

ssh rac2-priv date



10.##如果swap太小,swap调整方法:


通过此种方式进行swap 的扩展,首先要计算出block的数目。具体为根据需要扩展的swapfile的大小,以M为单位。block=swap分区大小*1024, 例如,需要扩展64M的swapfile,则:block=64*1024=65536.


然后做如下步骤:

dd if=/dev/zero of=/swapfile bs=1024 count=9216000

#mkswap /swapfile 

#swapon /swapfile 

#vi /etc/fstab 

增加/swapf swap swap defaults 0 0 

# cat /proc/swaps 或者# free –m //查看swap分区大小 

# swapoff /swapf //关闭扩展的swap分区




11.享磁盘配置:


rac1 和rac2配置共享磁盘 (esxi主机上面 2个总线都要选择共享才不会报错):

rac2 需要重启才可以在 ll /dev/raw 下面看到磁盘

所以只需root.sh 的时候 如果报错找不到raw磁盘,需要重启rac2,所以在配置好共享磁盘之后,重启rac2

在rac1格式化之后,

cat /etc/udev/rules.d/60-raw.rules 

# Enter raw device bindings here.

#

# An example would be:

#   ACTION=="add", KERNEL=="sda", RUN+="/bin/raw /dev/raw/raw1 %N"

# to bind /dev/raw/raw1 to /dev/sda, or

#   ACTION=="add", ENV{MAJOR}=="8", ENV{MINOR}=="1", RUN+="/bin/raw /dev/raw/raw2 %M %m"

# to bind /dev/raw/raw2 to the device with major 8, minor 1.

ACTION=="add",KERNEL=="/dev/sdb1",RUN+='/bin/raw /dev/raw/raw1 %N"

ACTION=="add",ENV{MAJOR}=="8",ENV{MINOR}=="17",RUN+="/bin/raw /dev/raw/raw1 %M %m"

ACTION=="add",KERNEL=="/dev/sdc1",RUN+='/bin/raw /dev/raw/raw2 %N"

ACTION=="add",ENV{MAJOR}=="8",ENV{MINOR}=="33",RUN+="/bin/raw /dev/raw/raw2 %M %m"

ACTION=="add",KERNEL=="/dev/sdd1",RUN+='/bin/raw /dev/raw/raw3 %N"

ACTION=="add",ENV{MAJOR}=="8",ENV{MINOR}=="49",RUN+="/bin/raw /dev/raw/raw3 %M %m"

ACTION=="add",KERNEL=="/dev/sde1",RUN+='/bin/raw /dev/raw/raw4 %N"

ACTION=="add",ENV{MAJOR}=="8",ENV{MINOR}=="65",RUN+="/bin/raw /dev/raw/raw4 %M %m"

ACTION=="add",KERNEL=="/dev/sdf1",RUN+='/bin/raw /dev/raw/raw5 %N"

ACTION=="add",ENV{MAJOR}=="8",ENV{MINOR}=="81",RUN+="/bin/raw /dev/raw/raw5 %M %m"


KERNEL=="raw[1-5]",OWNER="grid",GROUP="asmadmin",MODE="660"


注意ENV{MINOR} 的值相差16,增加的值也得相差16 要不然识别不出来

然后执行 start_udev

ll /dev/raw

rac2上要是没有 执行 partprobe


12.grid 预检


集群预检查 grid用户:

./runcluvfy.sh stage -pre crsinst -n rac1,rac2 -fixup -verbose

乱码请设置字符编码:

export LC_CTYPE=en_US.UTF-8


13.安装grid

./runInstall 按照操作安装即可

##注意1:安装实现root.sh 的脚本的时候 需要在途中执行,CRS-4124: Oracle High Availability Services startup failed.

CRS-4000: Command Start failed, or completed with errors.

ohasd failed to start: 对设备不适当的 ioctl 操作

ohasd failed to start at /u01/app/11.2.0/grid/crs/install/rootcrs.pl line 443.

解决方法竟然是出现pa user cert的时候在另一个窗口不停的执行下面的命令,直到命令执行成功,真是变态啊。

##执行root.sh 的时候 出现 adding demo to inttab的时

候 执行,要不然可能需要重现安装系统来安装rac

/bin/dd if=/var/tmp/.oracle/npohasd of=/dev/null bs=1024 count=1

注意2:安装最后报一个dns解析错误,忽略即可。[INS-20802]错误,忽略即可


14. 创建asm磁盘

su - grid

设置字符集:

export LC_CTYPE=en_US.UTF-8

运行 asmca

按照提示创建即可


15.安装database

切换到oracle用户,按照提示安装借口


16.rac维护

 1.查看服务状态


  忽略gsd问题


[root@rac1 ~]# su - grid

[grid@rac1 ~]$ crs_stat -t


检查集群实例运行状态 

[grid@rac1 ~]$ srvctl status database -d orcl 

Instance orcl1 is running on node rac1 

Instance orcl2 is running on node rac2



检查本地节点的CRS状态


[grid@rac1 ~]$ crsctl check crs

CRS-4638: Oracle High Availability Services is online

CRS-4537: Cluster Ready Services is online

CRS-4529: Cluster Synchronization Services is online

CRS-4533: Event Manager is online

检查集群的CRS状态


[grid@rac1 ~]$ crsctl check cluster

CRS-4537: Cluster Ready Services is online

CRS-4529: Cluster Synchronization Services is online

CRS-4533: Event Manager is online

 2.查看集群中节点配置信息


[grid@rac1 ~]$ olsnodes

rac1

rac2


[grid@rac1 ~]$ olsnodes -n

rac1    1

rac2    2


[grid@rac1 ~]$ olsnodes -n -i -s -t

rac1    1       rac1-vip        Active  Unpinned

rac2    2       rac2-vip        Active  Unpinned

3.查看集群件的表决磁盘信息


[grid@rac1 ~]$ crsctl query css votedisk

##  STATE    File Universal Id                File Name Disk group

--  -----    -----------------                --------- ---------

 1. ONLINE   496abcfc4e214fc9bf85cf755e0cc8e2 (/dev/raw/raw1) [OCR]

Located 1 voting disk(s).

4.查看集群SCAN VIP信息


[grid@rac1 ~]$ srvctl config scan

SCAN name: scan-ip, Network: 1/192.168.248.0/255.255.255.0/eth0

SCAN VIP name: scan1, IP: /scan-ip/192.168.248.110

查看集群SCAN Listener信息


[grid@rac1 ~]$ srvctl config scan_listener

SCAN Listener LISTENER_SCAN1 exists. Port: TCP:1521


5.asm 增加磁盘:

 方式1. grid 用户下:

sqlplus / as sysasm


alter diskgroup FRA add disk '/dev/raw/raw4' rebalance power 5;

 方式2. 运行asmca,直接添加磁盘


6. 集群关闭和开启:


一 关闭rac


1.关闭数据实例

[grid@rac1 ~]$ srvctl status database -d RACDB

实例 RACDB1 正在节点 rac1 上运行

实例 RACDB2 正在节点 rac2 上运行

[grid@rac1 ~]$ ps -ef|grep smon

oracle    3676     1  0 06:05 ?        00:00:02 ora_smon_RACDB1

grid     12840     1  0 01:54 ?        00:00:00 asm_smon_+ASM1

grid     27890 27621  0 07:52 pts/3    00:00:00 grep smon

2.将数据库关闭并再次确认

[grid@rac1 ~]$ srvctl stop database -d RACDB

[grid@rac1 ~]$ srvctl status database -d RACDB

3.切换到root用户,source  grid用户的环境变量

[root@rac1 ~]# cd /home/grid

[root@rac1 grid]# sh .bash_profile

4,使用crs_stat 确认集群各项资源和服务运行状态

[root@rac1 bin]# /u01/app/11.2.0/grid/bin/crs_stat -t -v

5,使用crsctl 指令关闭集群

[root@rac1 bin]# /u01/app/11.2.0/grid/bin/crsctl stop cluster -all

6,使用crs_stat 确认集群各项资源和服务运行状态

[root@rac1 bin]# /u01/app/11.2.0/grid/bin/crs_stat -t -v

[root@rac2 ~]# /u01/app/11.2.0/grid/bin/crs_stat -t -v

CRS-0184: Cannot communicate with the CRS daemon.

 说明顺利关闭


二 。RAC 开启

1,root 执行grid 下面的环境变量 (可以不执行直接到/u01/app/11.2.0/grid/bin/模式下)

2,查看crs 集群状态

[root@rac1 bin]# /u01/app/11.2.0/grid/bin/crs_stat -t -v

3,开启集群

  [root@rac1 ~]# /u01/app/11.2.0/grid/bin/crsctl start cluster -all

  检查状态

  [root@rac2 ~]# /u01/app/11.2.0/grid/bin/crs_stat -t -v

4,使用srvctl 确认数据库实例状态

 [root@rac1 ~]# /u01/app/11.2.0/grid/bin/srvctl status database -d RACDB

实例 RACDB1 没有在 rac1 节点上运行

实例 RACDB2 没有在 rac2 节点上运行

5,打开RAC 实例集群

[root@rac1 ~]# /u01/app/11.2.0/grid/bin/srvctl start database -d RACDB

 确认状态

[root@rac2 ~]# /u01/app/11.2.0/grid/bin/srvctl status database -d RACDB

实例 RACDB1 正在节点 rac1 上运行

实例 RACDB2 正在节点 rac2 上运行

 

6,打开OEM

[root@rac1 ~]# /u01/app/11.2.0/grid/bin/emctl start  RACDB

参考资料:

http://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2017-03/141543.htm





17.遇到的问题及处理办法


[root@rac2 ~]# sh /tmp/CVU_11.2.0.4.0_grid/runfixup.sh

Response file being used is :/tmp/CVU_11.2.0.4.0_grid/fixup.response

Enable file being used is :/tmp/CVU_11.2.0.4.0_grid/fixup.enable

Log file location: /tmp/CVU_11.2.0.4.0_grid/orarun.log

Installing Package /tmp/CVU_11.2.0.4.0_grid//cvuqdisk-1.0.9-1.rpm

Preparing...                ########################################### [100%]

ls: 无法访问/usr/sbin/smartctl: 没有那个文件或目录

/usr/sbin/smartctl not found.

error: %pre(cvuqdisk-1.0.9-1.x86_64) scriptlet failed, exit status 1

error:   install: %pre scriptlet failed (2), skipping cvuqdisk-1.0.9-1



yum install smartmontools


Creating trace directory

/u01/app/11.2.0/grid/bin/clscfg.bin: error while loading shared libraries: libcap.so.1: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory

Failed to create keys in the OLR, rc = 127, 32512

OLR configuration failed



解决:

yum install compat-libcap1 -y


Entries will be added to the /etc/oratab file as needed by

Database Configuration Assistant when a database is created

Finished running generic part of root.sh script.

Now product-specific root actions will be performed.

2017-09-01 18:18:52: Parsing the host name

2017-09-01 18:18:52: Checking for super user privileges

2017-09-01 18:18:52: User has super user privileges

Using configuration parameter file: /u01/app/11.2.0/grid/crs/install/crsconfig_params

Improper Oracle Clusterware configuration found on this host

Deconfigure the existing cluster configuration before starting

to configure a new Clusterware 

run '/u01/app/11.2.0/grid/crs/install/rootcrs.pl -deconfig' 

to configure existing failed configuration and then rerun root.sh



解决:

删除之前的注册信息,重新注册


/u01/app/11.2.0/grid/crs/install


./roothas.pl -delete -force -verbose


CRS-4124: Oracle High Availability Services startup failed.

CRS-4000: Command Start failed, or completed with errors.

ohasd failed to start: 对设备不适当的 ioctl 操作

ohasd failed to start at /u01/app/11.2.0/grid/crs/install/rootcrs.pl line 443.


解决方法竟然是出现pa user cert的时候在另一个窗口不停的执行下面的命令,直到命令执行成功,真是变态啊。

##执行root.sh 的时候 出现 adding demo to inttab的时

候 执行,要不然可能需要重现安装系统来安装rac

/bin/dd if=/var/tmp/.oracle/npohasd of=/dev/null bs=1024 count=1



错误:

ORA-12545: Connect failed because target host or object does not exist

解决:

经测试,其实只需要在客户端主机的/etc/hosts文件中,添加目标数据库的vip的解决信息便可以解决(测试数据库版本11G R2)


RAC维护


在工作上有时候忘记ASM磁盘组所对应的ASM磁盘和设备名,需要查看时可以在ASM实例中使用以下命令:


SQL> select name,path from v$asm_disk_stat;

本文转自  674591788  51CTO博客,原文链接:http://blog.51cto.com/mrdeng/1970582

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