MongoDB整库备份与还原以及单个collection备份、恢复方法

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MongoDB整库备份与还原以及单个collection备份、恢复方法

技术小胖子 2017-11-17 22:23:00 浏览650
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备份前的检查

> show dbs

MyDB 0.0625GB

admin (empty)

bruce 0.0625GB

local (empty)

test 0.0625GB

> use MyDB

switched to db MyDB

> db.users.find()

{ "_id" : ObjectId("4e290aa39a1945747b28f1ee"), "a" : 1, "b" : 1 }

{ "_id" : ObjectId("4e2cd2182a65c81f21566318"), "a" : 3, "b" : 5 }

>

整库备份

mongodump -h dbhost -d dbname -o dbdirectory

-h:MongDB所在服务器地址,例如:127.0.0.1,当然也可以指定端口号:127.0.0.1:27017

-d:需要备份的数据库实例,例如:test

-o:备份的数据存放位置,例如:c:\data\dump,当然该目录需要提前建立,在备份完成后,系统自动在dump目录下建立一个test目录,这个目录里面存放该数据库实例的备份数据。

mongodump的官方说明(可通过mongodump --help查看):

options:

 --help          produce help message

 -v [ --verbose ]     be more verbose (include multiple times for more

              verbosity e.g. -vvvvv)

 --version        print the program's version and exit

 -h [ --host ] arg    mongo host to connect to ( /s1,s2 for

              sets)

 --port arg        server port. Can also use --host hostname:port

 --ipv6          enable IPv6 support (disabled by default)

 -u [ --username ] arg  username

 -p [ --password ] arg  password

 --dbpath arg       directly access mongod database files in the given

              path, instead of connecting to a mongod server -

              needs to lock the data directory, so cannot be used

              if a mongod is currently accessing the same path

 --directoryperdb     if dbpath specified, each db is in a separate

              directory

 --journal        enable journaling

 -d [ --db ] arg     database to use

 -c [ --collection ] arg collection to use (some commands)

 -o [ --out ] arg (=dump) output directory or "-" for stdout

 -q [ --query ] arg    json query

 --oplog         Use oplog for point-in-time snapshotting

 --repair         try to recover a crashed database

 --forceTableScan     force a table scan (do not use $snapshot)

整库恢复

mongorestore -h dbhost -d dbname –directoryperdb dbdirectory

-h:MongoDB所在服务器地址

-d:需要恢复的数据库实例,例如:test,当然这个名称也可以和备份时候的不一样,比如test2

–directoryperdb:备份数据所在位置,例如:c:\data\dump\test,这里为什么要多加一个test,而不是备份时候的dump,读者自己查看提示吧!

–drop:恢复的时候,先删除当前数据,然后恢复备份的数据。就是说,恢复后,备份后添加修改的数据都会被删除,慎用哦!

mongorestore的官方说明(可通过mongorestore --help查看):

options:

 --help         produce help message

 -v [ --verbose ]    be more verbose (include multiple times for more

             verbosity e.g. -vvvvv)

 --version        print the program's version and exit

 -h [ --host ] arg    mongo host to connect to ( /s1,s2 for sets)

 --port arg       server port. Can also use --host hostname:port

 --ipv6         enable IPv6 support (disabled by default)

 -u [ --username ] arg  username

 -p [ --password ] arg  password

 --dbpath arg      directly access mongod database files in the given

             path, instead of connecting to a mongod server -

             needs to lock the data directory, so cannot be used

             if a mongod is currently accessing the same path

 --directoryperdb    if dbpath specified, each db is in a separate

             directory

 --journal        enable journaling

 -d [ --db ] arg     database to use

 -c [ --collection ] arg collection to use (some commands)

 --objcheck       validate object before inserting

 --filter arg      filter to apply before inserting

 --drop         drop each collection before import

 --oplogReplay      replay oplog for point-in-time restore

 --oplogLimit arg    exclude oplog entries newer than provided timestamp

             (epoch[:ordinal])

 --keepIndexVersion   don't upgrade indexes to newest version

 --noOptionsRestore   don't restore collection options

 --noIndexRestore    don't restore indexes

 --w arg (=1)      minimum number of replicas per write

单个collection备份

mongoexport -h dbhost -d dbname -c collectionname -f collectionKey -o dbdirectory

-h: MongoDB所在服务器地址

-d: 需要恢复的数据库实例

-c: 需要恢复的集合

-f: 需要导出的字段(省略为所有字段)

-o: 表示导出的文件名

mongoexport的官方说明(可通过mongoexport --help查看):

 --help          produce help message

 -v [ --verbose ]     be more verbose (include multiple times for more

              verbosity e.g. -vvvvv)

 --version         print the program's version and exit

 -h [ --host ] arg     mongo host to connect to ( /s1,s2 for

              sets)

 --port arg        server port. Can also use --host hostname:port

 --ipv6          enable IPv6 support (disabled by default)

 -u [ --username ] arg   username

 -p [ --password ] arg   password

 --dbpath arg       directly access mongod database files in the given

              path, instead of connecting to a mongod server -

              needs to lock the data directory, so cannot be used

              if a mongod is currently accessing the same path

 --directoryperdb     if dbpath specified, each db is in a separate

              directory

 --journal         enable journaling

 -d [ --db ] arg      database to use

 -c [ --collection ] arg  collection to use (some commands)

 -f [ --fields ] arg    comma separated list of field names e.g. -f

              name,age

 --fieldFile arg      file with fields names - 1 per line

 -q [ --query ] arg    query filter, as a JSON string

 --csv           export to csv instead of json

 -o [ --out ] arg     output file; if not specified, stdout is used

 --jsonArray        output to a json array rather than one object per

              line

 -k [ --slaveOk ] arg (=1) use secondaries for export if available, default

              true

 --forceTableScan     force a table scan (do not use $snapshot)

单个collection恢复

mongoimport -d dbhost -c collectionname –type csv –headerline –file

-type: 指明要导入的文件格式

-headerline: 批明不导入第一行,因为第一行是列名

-file: 指明要导入的文件路径

mongoimport的官方说明(可通过mongoimport --help查看):

 --help         produce help message

 -v [ --verbose ]    be more verbose (include multiple times for more

             verbosity e.g. -vvvvv)

 --version        print the program's version and exit

 -h [ --host ] arg    mongo host to connect to ( /s1,s2 for sets)

 --port arg       server port. Can also use --host hostname:port

 --ipv6         enable IPv6 support (disabled by default)

 -u [ --username ] arg  username

 -p [ --password ] arg  password

 --dbpath arg      directly access mongod database files in the given

             path, instead of connecting to a mongod server -

             needs to lock the data directory, so cannot be used

             if a mongod is currently accessing the same path

 --directoryperdb    if dbpath specified, each db is in a separate

             directory

 --journal        enable journaling

 -d [ --db ] arg     database to use

 -c [ --collection ] arg collection to use (some commands)

 -f [ --fields ] arg   comma separated list of field names e.g. -f name,age

 --fieldFile arg     file with fields names - 1 per line

 --ignoreBlanks     if given, empty fields in csv and tsv will be ignored

 --type arg       type of file to import. default: json (json,csv,tsv)

 --file arg       file to import from; if not specified stdin is used

 --drop         drop collection first

 --headerline      CSV,TSV only - use first line as headers

 --upsert        insert or update objects that already exist

 --upsertFields arg   comma-separated fields for the query part of the

             upsert. You should make sure this is indexed

 --stopOnError      stop importing at first error rather than continuing

 --jsonArray       load a json array, not one item per line. Currently

             limited to 16MB.

其他导入与导出操作

1. mongoimport -d my_mongodb -c user user.dat


参数说明:


-d 指明使用的库, 本例中为” my_mongodb”


-c 指明要导出的表, 本例中为”user”


可以看到导入数据的时候会隐式创建表结构

2. mongoexport -d my_mongodb -c user -o user.dat


参数说明:


-d 指明使用的库, 本例中为” my_mongodb”


-c 指明要导出的表, 本例中为”user”


-o 指明要导出的文件名, 本例中为”user.dat”


从上面可以看到导出的方式使用的是JSON 的样式.





     本文转自aaron428 51CTO博客,原文链接:http://blog.51cto.com/aaronsa/1728259,如需转载请自行联系原作者


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