CentOS 5.11下Oracle 11G R2 Dataguard搭建

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CentOS 5.11下Oracle 11G R2 Dataguard搭建

科技小能手 2017-11-12 17:12:00 浏览903
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Datagard算是Oracle企业版的一种容灾方案,在企业中广泛应用,我就将搭建过程记录下来以作备用。

主机名    数据库版本    实例名    IP

db1    Oracle 11G R2    member    172.16.1.250

db2    Oracle 11G R2    member    172.16.1.251

默认情况下以上都已经安装好了Oracle数据库,但是只在db1上建立了数据库和监听,db2只安装Oracle软件不建库,不建监听。


目录:

  1. 打开强制归档日志

  2. 增加standby日志组

  3. 修改主备启动参数

  4. 密码文件的处理

  5. 修改监听

  6. 复制监听文件、参数文件、密码文件到备库

  7. 创建备库控制文件

  8. 复制主库数据文件和日志文件到备库

  9. 初始化及配置备库做standby

  10. DataGuard测试

  11. 主备切换测试


基础工作:

    a.安装CentOS 5.11 x86_64,关闭selinux,iptables,自动对时

    b.安装Oracle 11G R2,db1安装软件、监听及建库,db2只安装软件不建库 

    可以参考:http://fengwan.blog.51cto.com/508652/1330122


在db1的/etc/hosts里增加

127.0.0.1       db1

172.16.1.251    db2

在db2的/etc/hosts里增加

127.0.0.1       db2

172.16.1.250    db1


  1. 打开强制归档(db1)

(db1)SQL >shutdown immediate;

(db1)SQL >startup mount;

(db1)SQL >alter database force logging; 

(db1)SQL >alter database archivelog;

2.创建重做日志组(必须要比原来的redo log多一组或多组,standby redo log是使用Real Time Apply的必要条件)

(db1)SQL> select group#,member from v$logfile;

    GROUP#    MEMBER

-------------  -----------------------------------------------------------------

     3    /opt/oracle/oradata/member/redo03.log

     2    /opt/oracle/oradata/member/redo02.log

     1    /opt/oracle/oradata/member/redo01.log

从上面可以看出现在已经有3组redo log.

(db1)SQL >alter database add standby logfile ('/opt/oracle/oradata/member/standby04.log') size 50m;

(db1)SQL >alter database add standby logfile ('/opt/oracle/oradata/member/standby05.log') size 50m;

(db1)SQL >alter database add standby logfile ('/opt/oracle/oradata/member/standby06.log') size 50m;

(db1)SQL >alter database add standby logfile ('/opt/oracle/oradata/member/standby07.log') size 50m;

再查下日志组是否创建成功

(db1)SQL> select group#,member from v$logfile;

    GROUP#    MEMBER

-------------  -----------------------------------------------------------------

     3    /opt/oracle/oradata/member/redo03.log

     2    /opt/oracle/oradata/member/redo02.log

     1    /opt/oracle/oradata/member/redo01.log

    4    /opt/oracle/oradata/member/standby04.log

    5     /opt/oracle/oradata/member/standby05.log

    6     /opt/oracle/oradata/member/standby06.log

    7     /opt/oracle/oradata/member/standby07.log

可以看到我们创建的4组日志


3.修改主备库的启动参数

生成参数文件

(db1)SQL> create pfile='/tmp/member.pfile' from spfile;

退出sqlplus,用编辑器打开/tmp/member.pfile

[oracle@db1 ~]$ vi /tmp/member.pfile

member.__db_cache_size=331350016

member.__java_pool_size=4194304

member.__large_pool_size=4194304

member.__oracle_base='/opt/oracle'#ORACLE_BASE set from environment

member.__pga_aggregate_target=339738624

member.__sga_target=503316480

member.__shared_io_pool_size=0

member.__shared_pool_size=150994944

member.__streams_pool_size=0

*.audit_file_dest='/opt/oracle/admin/member/adump'

*.audit_trail='db'

*.compatible='11.2.0.0.0'

*.control_files='/opt/oracle/oradata/member/control01.ctl','/opt/oracle/flash_recovery_area/member/control02.ctl'

*.db_block_size=8192

*.db_domain=''

*.db_name='member'

*.db_recovery_file_dest='/opt/oracle/flash_recovery_area'

*.db_recovery_file_dest_size=4070572032

*.diagnostic_dest='/opt/oracle'

*.dispatchers='(PROTOCOL=TCP) (SERVICE=memberXDB)'

*.log_archive_format='%t_%s_%r.dbf'

*.memory_target=839909376

*.open_cursors=300

*.processes=150

*.remote_login_passwordfile='EXCLUSIVE'

*.undo_tablespace='UNDOTBS1'

#增加一下部分

*.db_unique_name='db1'

*.archive_lag_target=1800

*.fal_client='db1'

*.fal_server='db2'

*.log_archive_config='DG_CONFIG=(db1,db2)'

*.log_archive_dest_1='location=/opt/oracle/flash_recovery_area/ VALID_FOR=(all_logfiles,all_roles) db_unique_name=db1'

*.log_archive_dest_2='service=db2 lgwr async valid_for=(online_logfiles,primary_role) db_unique_name=db2'

*.log_archive_dest_state_1='enable'

*.log_archive_dest_state_2='enable'

*.log_archive_format='%t_%s_%r.dbf'

*.standby_file_management='auto'

*.db_file_name_convert='/opt/oracle/flash_recovery_area',' /opt/oracle/flash_recovery_area'

*.log_file_name_convert='/opt/oracle/flash_recovery_area ','/opt/oracle/flash_recovery_area'


并拷贝一个作为备机db2的启动参数文件

[oracle@db1 ~]$ cp /tmp/member.pfile /tmp/db2.pfile

[oracle@db1 ~]$ vim /tmp/db2.pfile 

则将上面增加的部分修改为

*.db_unique_name='db2'

*.archive_lag_target=1800

*.fal_client='db2'

*.fal_server='db1'

*.log_archive_config='DG_CONFIG=(db1,db2)'

*.log_archive_dest_1='location=/opt/oracle/flash_recovery_area/ VALID_FOR=(all_logfiles,all_roles) db_unique_name=db2'

*.log_archive_dest_2='service=db1 lgwr async valid_for=(online_logfiles,primary_role) db_unique_name=db1'

*.log_archive_dest_state_1='enable'

*.log_archive_dest_state_2='enable'

*.log_archive_format='%t_%s_%r.dbf'

*.standby_file_management='auto'

*.db_file_name_convert='/opt/oracle/flash_recovery_area',' /opt/oracle/flash_recovery_area'

*.log_file_name_convert='/opt/oracle/flash_recovery_area ','/opt/oracle/flash_recovery_area'


在db1上以修改过的/tmp/member.pfile启动

(db1)SQL >shutdown immediate;

(db1)SQL> startup pfile='/tmp/member.pfile' nomount;

(db1)SQL> create spfile from pfile='/tmp/member.pfile';

(db1)SQL >shutdown immediate;

(db1)SQL> startup;


4.主库密码文件:

[1]存在密码文件

[oracle@db1 dbs]$ ls $ORACLE_HOME/dbs

hc_DBUA0.dat  hc_member.dat  init.ora  lkDB1  lkMEMBER  orapwmember  spfilemember.ora

看到上面有一个密码文件orapwmember,在建库的时候默认会创建一个

=================================================================================

[2]不存在密码文件

如果没有的话可以手动创建一个。

[oracle@db1 dbs]$ cd $ORACLE_HOME/dbs

[oracle@db1 dbs]$ orapwd file=orapwmember password=123456 entries=3

#注意以上需要根据SID名建立的,file=orapwSID

===================================================================================


5.修改监听

[oracle@db1 dbs]$ cd $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin

[oracle@db1 admin]$ mv listener.ora listener.ora.default

[oracle@db1 admin]$ vim listener.ora

LISTENER =

  (DESCRIPTION =

    (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = db1)(PORT = 1521))

  )

 

SID_LIST_LISTENER =

  (SID_LIST =

    (SID_DESC =

      (GLOBAL_DBNAME = member)

      (ORACLE_HOME = /opt/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1)

      (SID_NAME = member)

    )

  )

#注意以上的HOST,就是HOSTNAME

[oracle@db1 admin]$ vim tnsnames.ora 

MEMBER =

  (DESCRIPTION =

    (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = localhost.localdomain)(PORT = 1521))

    (CONNECT_DATA =

      (SERVER = DEDICATED)

      (SERVICE_NAME = member)

    )

  )

db1 =

  (DESCRIPTION =

    (ADDRESS_LIST =

      (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = db1)(PORT = 1521))

    )

    (CONNECT_DATA =

      (SERVER = DEDICATED)

      (SERVICE_NAME = db1)

    )

  )

db2 =

  (DESCRIPTION =

    (ADDRESS_LIST =

      (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = db2)(PORT = 1521))

    )

    (CONNECT_DATA =

      (SERVER = DEDICATED)

      (SERVICE_NAME = db2)

    )

  )

重启下监听

[oracle@db1 admin]$ lsnrctl stop

[oracle@db1 admin]$ lsnrctl start


6.复制监听文件、参数文件、密码文件到备库

#注意一下我这边$ORACLE_HOME

[oracle@db1 ~]$ echo $ORACLE_HOME

/opt/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1

#传输启动参数文件

[oracle@db1 ~]$ scp /tmp/db2.pfile db2:~

#传输密码文件

[oracle@db1 ~]$ scp /opt/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/dbs/orapwmember db2:/opt/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/dbs/orapwmember

#传输监听文件

[oracle@db1 ~]$ scp -r /opt/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/network/admin/{listener.ora,tnsnames.ora} db2:/opt/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/network/admin/


在db2上修改/opt/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/network/admin/listener.ora,将db1修改为db2

[oracle@db2 ~]$ vim /opt/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/network/admin/listener.ora

LISTENER =

  (DESCRIPTION =

    (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = db2)(PORT = 1521))

  ) 

SID_LIST_LISTENER =

  (SID_LIST =

    (SID_DESC =

      (GLOBAL_DBNAME = member)

      (ORACLE_HOME = /opt/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1)

      (SID_NAME = member)

    )

  )

#只需要修改listener.ora即可,tnsnames.ora不需要动


7.主库创建standby控制文件,我们这边利用scp传送全部文件

查看下控制文件的路径

(db1)SQL> select name from v$controlfile;

NAME

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/opt/oracle/oradata/member/control01.ctl

/opt/oracle/flash_recovery_area/member/control02.ctl


(db1)SQL> shutdown immediate;

(db1)SQL> startup mount;

(db1)SQL> alter database create standby controlfile as '/opt/oracle/oradata/member/standby.ctl';

#在/opt/oracle/oradata/member/目录下创建standby.ctl备机控制文件


8.复制主库数据文件和日志文件到备库

[oracle@db1 ~]$ scp -r /opt/oracle/flash_recovery_area/ /opt/oracle/admin/ /opt/oracle/diag/ /opt/oracle/oradata/ db2:/opt/oracle


9.初始化备库

在备机上使用standby的控制文件覆盖原有的控制文件,覆盖的路径可以通过上一步查找控制文件的路径了解到

[oracle@db2 ~]$ cp /opt/oracle/oradata/member/standby.ctl /opt/oracle/oradata/member/control01.ctl 

[oracle@db2 ~]$ cp /opt/oracle/oradata/member/standby.ctl /opt/oracle/flash_recovery_area/member/control02.ctl


使用db2.pfile之前修改过的参数文件进行db2

(db2)SQL> startup pfile='/home/oracle/db2.pfile' nomount;

(db2)SQL> create spfile from pfile='/home/oracle/db2.pfile';

(db2)SQL> shutdown immediate;

(db2)SQL> startup nomount;

(db2)SQL> alter database mount standby database;

(db2)SQL> alter database open read only;

以下3种应用日志的方法:(a和b选一)

a.开启实时应用日志,这样在主库插入立马就可以在备机上查找到

(db2)SQL> alter database recover managed standby database using current logfile disconnect from session;

b.开启redolog应用日志,时间较长才能查询到

(db2)SQL> alter database recover managed standby database disconnect from session;

c.停止应用redolog,只接受日志,不重做

(db2)SQL> alter database recover managed standby database cancel;

至此,DataGuard搭建成功,在db1上创建表并插入数据,然后在db2上进行查询就可以查到了。一开始做的时候总是查不到数据,最后发现是上面应用日志的方法问题。


10.Dataguard测试:

查看Standby管理进程

(db1)SQL> select process,status from v$managed_standby;

PROCESS   STATUS

--------- ------------

ARCH      CONNECTED

ARCH      CLOSING

ARCH      CLOSING

ARCH      CLOSING

LNS       WRITING

(db2)SQL> select process,status from v$managed_standby;

PROCESS   STATUS

--------- ------------

ARCH      CLOSING

ARCH      CLOSING

ARCH      CONNECTED

ARCH      CONNECTED

MRP0      APPLYING_LOG

RFS       IDLE

RFS       IDLE


以上需要看到在主机上需要有LNS进程,在备机上需要RFS进程用来接收redo日志,MRP0进程就是负责将日志写入数据库中


在db1上进行切换日志,然后在db2上查看日志是否正常

(db1)SQL> select sequence#,applied from v$archived_log;

(db1)SQL> select max(sequence#) from v$archived_log;

MAX(SEQUENCE#)

--------------

    11

(db2)SQL> select sequence#,applied from v$archived_log;

(db2)SQL> select max(sequence#) from v$archived_log;

MAX(SEQUENCE#)

--------------

    11


(db1)SQL> alter system switch logfile;

(db1)SQL> select max(sequence#) from v$archived_log;

MAX(SEQUENCE#)

--------------

    12

(db2)SQL> select max(sequence#) from v$archived_log;

MAX(SEQUENCE#)

--------------

    12


从上面可以看出日志切换成功,DataGuard正常运行




11.主备切换测试:

db1---primary/db2---standby   ===》db2--primary/db1--standby


[oracle@db1 ~]$ lsnrctl stop

(db1)SQL> alter database commit to switchover to physical standby with session shutdown;

(db1)SQL> shutdown immediate;

(db1)SQL> startup mount;

(db1)SQL> alter database open read only;

(db1)SQL> alter database recover managed standby database using current logfile disconnect from session;

//在执行这条的时候,如果出现

ERROR at line 1:

ORA-01665: control file is not a standby control file

则是没有执行alter database commit to switchover to physical standby with session shutdown;


[oracle@db1 ~]$ lsnrctl start


(db2)SQL> alter database commit to switchover to primary;

注意:

若出现ORA-16139: media recovery required,执行如下语句:

SQL> ALTER  DATABASE RECOVER MANAGED STANDBY  DATABASE DISCONNECT FROM SESSION;

SQL> alter database commit to switchover to primary;


如果出现,则可能是已打开了会话,加上with session shutdown强制关闭绘画

ERROR at line 1:

ORA-01093: ALTER DATABASE CLOSE only permitted with no sessions connected


SQL> alter database commit to switchover to primary WITH SESSION SHUTDOWN;


(db2)SQL> shutdown immediate;

(db2)SQL> startup;


以上就是主备切换的流程



本文转自 rong341233 51CTO博客,原文链接:http://blog.51cto.com/fengwan/1737578

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