Puppet条件语句,class,module的使用

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Puppet条件语句,class,module的使用

技术小胖子 2017-11-09 07:39:00 浏览766
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一、Puppet条件语句和类

   Puppet2.7系列的版本支持使用3种条件判断语句,包括:if,case,selector,puppet也支持使用class是用于通用目标的一组资源,因此,它是命名的代码块,在某位置创建之后可在puppet全局使用,类似于其他编程语言中类的功能,puppet的class可以被继承,也可以包含子类。


二、Puppet模块

   到目前为止,资源申报、定义类、声明类等所有功能都只能再一个manifest文件中实现,但这却非最有效的基于puppet管理IT基础架构的方式,实践中,一般需要把manifest文件分解成易于理解的结构,例如将类文件,配置文件、模块文件等分类存放,并且通过某种机制在必要时将它们整合起来,这种机制就是“模块”,它有助于以结构化、层次化的方式使用puppet,而puppet则基于“模块自动装载器”完成模块装载,模块实际就是一个按约定的、预定义的结构存放了多个文件或子目录的目录,目录里的这些文件或子目录必须遵循其命名规范,puppet会按此种规范在特定位置查找所需要的模块文件,不过,这些特定的目录也可以通过puppet的配置参数modulepath定义。




首先来演示下if语句的使用,if又包括单分支,双分支,多分支语句

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[root@node1 ~]# vi test6.pp
if $operatingsystem =~ /(?i-mx:^(centos|fedora|redhat))/ {
        $webserver = 'httpd'
} elsif operatingsystem  =~ /(?i-mx:^(debian|ubuntu))/ {
        $webserver = 'apache2'
else {
        $webserver = undef
        notice('Unkown OS')
}
package {"$webserver":
        ensure => installed,
}
[root@node1 ~]# puppet apply test6.pp
notice: /Stage[main]//Package[httpd]/ensure: created
notice: Finished catalog run in 2.91 seconds
[root@node1 ~]# rpm -q httpd
httpd-2.2.15-30.el6.centos.x86_64
# 使用多分支if判断语句,operatingsystem顶级变量,根据当前系统安装所要安装的程序包


case语句,类似if语句,case语句会从多个代码块中选择一个分支执行,这跟其他编程语言中的case语句功能一致,case语句会接受一个控制表达式和一组case代码块,并执行第一个匹配到控制表达式的块

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[root@node1 ~]# vi test7.pp
case $operatingsystem {
        'Solaris':              {notice("Welcome to Solaris")}
        'RedHat','CentOS':      {notice("Welcome to RedHat OSFamily")}
        /^(Debian|Ubuntu)$/:    {notice("Welcome to $1 linux")}
        default:                {notice("Welcome,alien *_*")}
}
[root@node1 ~]# puppet apply test7.pp
notice: Scope(Class[main]): Welcome to RedHat OSFamily
notice: Finished catalog run in 0.01 seconds



selector语句,selector只能用于期望出现直接值的地方,这包括变量赋值,资源属性,函数参数,资源标题,其他selector的值及表达式,selector不能用于一个已经嵌套于selector的case中,也不能用于一个已经嵌套于case的case语句中

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[root@node1 ~]# vi test8.pp
$webserver = $operatingsystem ? {
   /(?i-mx:ubuntu|debian)/        => 'apache2',
   /(?i-mx:centos|fedora|redhat)/ => 'httpd',
}
notify {"$webserver":
        message => "install $webserver",
}
[root@node1 ~]# puppet apply test8.pp
notice: install httpd
notice: /Stage[main]//Notify[httpd]/message: defined 'message' as 'install httpd'
notice: Finished catalog run in 0.02 seconds


class的使用

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[root@node1 ~]# vi test9.pp
class nginx {
        package {'nginx':
                ensure => installed,
                before => File['/etc/nginx/nginx.conf'],
                }
        file {'/etc/nginx/nginx.conf':
                ensure => file,
                mode => 0644,
                owner => 'root',
                group => 'root',
                source => '/tmp/nginx.conf',
                notify => Service['nginx'],
             }
        service { 'nginx':
                ensure => running,
                }
}
include nginx
# 使用include来调用class
[root@node1 ~]# puppet apply test9.pp
notice: /Stage[main]/Nginx/Package[nginx]/ensure: created
notice: /Stage[main]/Nginx/File[/etc/nginx/nginx.conf]/content: content changed '{md5}d9dfc198c249bb4ac341198a752b9458' to '{md5}95f45f10386878664af2b7ccd1536ea4'
notice: /Stage[main]/Nginx/Service[nginx]/ensure: ensure changed 'stopped' to 'running'
notice: /Stage[main]/Nginx/Service[nginx]: Triggered 'refresh' from 1 events
notice: Finished catalog run in 2.16 seconds
# 也可以使用以下方式调用,这种方式可以传递参数
class nginx {
        package {'nginx':
                ensure => installed,
                before => File['/etc/nginx/nginx.conf'],
                }
        file {'/etc/nginx/nginx.conf':
                ensure => file,
                mode => 0644,
                owner => 'root',
                group => 'root',
                source => '/tmp/nginx.conf',
                notify => Service['nginx'],
             }
        service { 'nginx':
                ensure => running,
                }
}
class {'nginx':}
[root@node1 ~]# puppet apply test9.pp
notice: /Stage[main]/Nginx/Package[nginx]/ensure: created
notice: /Stage[main]/Nginx/File[/etc/nginx/nginx.conf]/content: content changed '{md5}d9dfc198c249bb4ac341198a752b9458' to '{md5}95f45f10386878664af2b7ccd1536ea4'
notice: /Stage[main]/Nginx/Service[nginx]/ensure: ensure changed 'stopped' to 'running'
notice: /Stage[main]/Nginx/Service[nginx]: Triggered 'refresh' from 1 events
notice: Finished catalog run in 2.06 seconds


使用class方法调用类,还可以传递参数实现,根据参数来安装不同的服务,比如想安装tengine

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[root@node1 ~]# vi test9.pp
class webserver ($wbsvr='nginx') {
        package {"$wbsvr":
                ensure => installed,
                before => File['/etc/nginx/nginx.conf'],
                }
        file {'/etc/nginx/nginx.conf':
                ensure => file,
                mode => 0644,
                owner => 'root',
                group => 'root',
                source => '/tmp/nginx.conf',
                notify => Service['nginx'],
             }
        service { 'nginx':
                ensure => running,
                }
}
class {'webserver':
        wbsvr => 'nginx',
}
[root@node1 ~]# puppet apply test9.pp
notice: /Stage[main]/Webserver/Package[nginx]/ensure: created
notice: /Stage[main]/Webserver/File[/etc/nginx/nginx.conf]/content: content changed '{md5}d9dfc198c249bb4ac341198a752b9458' to '{md5}95f45f10386878664af2b7ccd1536ea4'
notice: /Stage[main]/Webserver/Service[nginx]/ensure: ensure changed 'stopped' to 'running'
notice: /Stage[main]/Webserver/Service[nginx]: Triggered 'refresh' from 1 events
notice: Finished catalog run in 2.09 seconds
[root@node1 ~]# vi test9.pp
class webserver ($wbsvr='nginx') {
        package {"$wbsvr":
                ensure => installed,
                before => File['/etc/nginx/nginx.conf'],
                }
        file {'/etc/nginx/nginx.conf':
                ensure => file,
                mode => 0644,
                owner => 'root',
                group => 'root',
                source => '/tmp/nginx.conf',
                notify => Service['nginx'],
             }
        service { 'nginx':
                ensure => running,
                }
}
class {'webserver':
        wbsvr => 'tenginx',
}
[root@node1 ~]# puppet apply test9.pp
err: /Stage[main]/Webserver/Package[tenginx]/ensure: change from absent to present failed: Execution of '/usr/bin/yum -d 0 -e 0 -y install tenginx' returned 1: Error: Nothing to do
notice: /Stage[main]/Webserver/File[/etc/nginx/nginx.conf]: Dependency Package[tenginx] has failures: true
warning: /Stage[main]/Webserver/File[/etc/nginx/nginx.conf]: Skipping because of failed dependencies
notice: /Stage[main]/Webserver/Service[nginx]: Dependency Package[tenginx] has failures: true
warning: /Stage[main]/Webserver/Service[nginx]: Skipping because of failed dependencies
notice: Finished catalog run in 0.41 second


类也可以被继承,实现根据不同情况调用不同的类

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[root@node1 ~]# vi test10.pp
class nginx {
        package {'nginx':
                ensure => installed,
        }
}
class nginx::websvr inherits nginx {
        file {'/etc/nginx/nginx.conf':
                ensure => file,
                mode => '0644',
                owner => 'root',
                group => 'root',
                require => Package['nginx'],
                source => '/tmp/nginx.conf',
        }
        service {'nginx':
                ensure => running,
        }
}
class nginx::rproxy inherits nginx {
        file {'/etc/nginx/nginx.conf':
                ensure => file,
                mode => '0644',
                owner => 'root',
                group => 'root',
                require => Package['nginx'],
                source => '/tmp/nginx-proxy.conf',
        }
        service {'nginx':
                ensure => running,
        }
}
include nginx::websvr
[root@node1 ~]# puppet apply test10.pp
notice: /Stage[main]/Nginx/Package[nginx]/ensure: created
notice: /Stage[main]/Nginx::Websvr/File[/etc/nginx/nginx.conf]/content: content changed '{md5}d9dfc198c249bb4ac341198a752b9458' to '{md5}95f45f10386878664af2b7ccd1536ea4'
notice: /Stage[main]/Nginx::Websvr/Service[nginx]/ensure: ensure changed 'stopped' to 'running'
notice: Finished catalog run in 1.81 seconds
# 调用nginx::rproxy类
[root@node1 ~]# vi test10.pp
class nginx {
        package {'nginx':
                ensure => installed,
        }
}
class nginx::websvr inherits nginx {
        file {'/etc/nginx/nginx.conf':
                ensure => file,
                mode => '0644',
                owner => 'root',
                group => 'root',
                require => Package['nginx'],
                source => '/tmp/nginx.conf',
        }
        service {'nginx':
                ensure => running,
        }
}
class nginx::rproxy inherits nginx {
        file {'/etc/nginx/nginx.conf':
                ensure => file,
                mode => '0644',
                owner => 'root',
                group => 'root',
                require => Package['nginx'],
                source => '/tmp/nginx-proxy.conf',
        }
        service {'nginx':
                ensure => running,
        }
}
include nginx::rproxy
[root@node1 ~]# puppet apply test10.pp
notice: Finished catalog run in 0.15 seconds


puppet模块的创建和使用


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# 安装puppet-server
[root@node1 ~]# rpm -ivh puppet-server-2.7.23-1.el6.noarch.rpm



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# 创建模块目录结构
[root@node1 ~]# mkdir -pv /etc/puppet/modules/nginx/{manifests,files,lib,templates,tests,spec}
mkdir: created directory `/etc/puppet/modules/nginx'
mkdir: created directory `/etc/puppet/modules/nginx/manifests'
mkdir: created directory `/etc/puppet/modules/nginx/files'
mkdir: created directory `/etc/puppet/modules/nginx/lib'
mkdir: created directory `/etc/puppet/modules/nginx/templates'
mkdir: created directory `/etc/puppet/modules/nginx/tests'
mkdir: created directory `/etc/puppet/modules/nginx/spec'
[root@node1 ~]# puppet module list
/etc/puppet/modules
└── nginx (???)
/usr/share/puppet/modules (no modules installed)


MODULE NAME:模块名称,只能以小写字母开头,也可以包含小写字母、数字和下划线,但不能使用“main”或者“settings”作为模块名;

manifests目录:包含当前模块的所有manifest文件;每个mainfest文件必须包含一个类或一个定义的类,此文件访问路径格式为"ModuleName::[SubDircetoryName::]ManifestFileName",注意manifest文件不需要其后缀.pp;

init.pp:只能包含一个单独的类定义,且类的名称必须与模块名称相同;

files目录:包含了一组静态文件,这些文件可被节点下载使用,每个文件的访问路径遵循

puppet:///modules/MODULE_NAME/filename路径格式;

lib目录:插件目录,常用于自定义fact及自定义资源类型等;

templates目录:存储了manifest用到的模板文件,其访问路径遵循template('ModulName/TemplateName')格式;

tests目录:当前模块的使用帮助或使用范例文件,类似如何声明当前模块中的类定义的类型等;

spec目录:类似于tests目录的功能,只不过,其是为lib目录中定义的各插件提供使用的范例的;


在nginx模块中定义init.pp

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[root@node1 ~]# vi /etc/puppet/modules/nginx/manifests/init.pp
class nginx {
        package {'nginx':
              ensure => installed,
        }
}


定义nginx_web.pp文件

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[root@node1 ~]# vi /etc/puppet/modules/nginx/manifests/nginx_web.pp
class nginx::nginx_web inherits nginx {
        file {'/etc/nginx/nginx.conf':
            ensure => file,
            source => 'puppet:///modules/nginx/nginx-web.conf',
            mode => '0644',
            owner => 'root',
            group => 'root',
            notify => Service['nginx'],
            require => Package['nginx'],
        }
        service {'nginx':
            ensure => running,
}
}
# 准备source文件
[root@node1 ~]# cp /tmp/nginx.conf /etc/puppet/modules/nginx/files/nginx-web.conf

定义nginx_proxy.pp文件

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[root@node1 ~]# vi /etc/puppet/modules/nginx/manifests/nginx_proxy.pp
class nginx::nginx_proxy inherits nginx {
        file {'/etc/nginx/nginx.conf':
            ensure => file,
            source => 'puppet:///modules/nginx/nginx-proxy.conf',
            mode => '0644',
            owner => 'root',
            group => 'root',
            notify => Service['nginx'],
            require => Package['nginx'],
        }
        service {'nginx':
            ensure => running,
}
}
# 准备source文件
[root@node1 ~]# cp /tmp/nginx.conf /etc/puppet/modules/nginx/files/nginx-proxy.conf

创建site.pp文件调用前面定义的class

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[root@node1 ~]# vi /etc/puppet/manifests/site.pp
node 'node1.luojianlong' {
        include nginx::nginx_web
}


执行操作

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[root@node1 ~]# puppet apply /etc/puppet/manifests/site.pp
notice: /Stage[main]/Nginx/Package[nginx]/ensure: created
notice: /Stage[main]/Nginx::Nginx_web/File[/etc/nginx/nginx.conf]/content: content changed '{md5}d9dfc198c249bb4ac341198a752b9458' to '{md5}95f45f10386878664af2b7ccd1536ea4'
notice: /Stage[main]/Nginx::Nginx_web/Service[nginx]/ensure: ensure changed 'stopped' to 'running'
notice: /Stage[main]/Nginx::Nginx_web/Service[nginx]: Triggered 'refresh' from 1 events
notice: Finished catalog run in 2.05 seconds


这样就是使用nginx-web.conf配置文件启动的nginx

也可以使用nginx-proxy.conf,启动

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[root@node1 ~]# vi /etc/puppet/manifests/site.pp
node 'node1.luojianlong' {
        include nginx::nginx_proxy
}
[root@node1 ~]# yum -y remove nginx
[root@node1 ~]# puppet apply /etc/puppet/manifests/site.pp
notice: /Stage[main]/Nginx/Package[nginx]/ensure: created
notice: /Stage[main]/Nginx::Nginx_proxy/File[/etc/nginx/nginx.conf]/content: content changed '{md5}d9dfc198c249bb4ac341198a752b9458' to '{md5}95f45f10386878664af2b7ccd1536ea4'
notice: /Stage[main]/Nginx::Nginx_proxy/Service[nginx]/ensure: ensure changed 'stopped' to 'running'
notice: /Stage[main]/Nginx::Nginx_proxy/Service[nginx]: Triggered 'refresh' from 1 events
notice: Finished catalog run in 2.11 seconds
# 执行成功


到此,Puppet条件语句,class,module的使用就介绍这么多了。




     本文转自ljl_19880709 51CTO博客,原文链接:http://blog.51cto.com/luojianlong/1394883,如需转载请自行联系原作者





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