基于Tomcat构建LNMT架构的网站并实现Session保持

  1. 云栖社区>
  2. 博客>
  3. 正文

基于Tomcat构建LNMT架构的网站并实现Session保持

余二五 2017-11-23 16:37:00 浏览1069
展开阅读全文

简介

LNMT=Linux+Nginx+MySQL+Tomcat;

Tomcat 服务器是一个免费的开放源代码的Web 应用服务器,属于轻量级应用服务器;

在中小型系统和并发访问用户不是很多的场合下被普遍使用,是开发和调试JSP 程序的首选;


架构需求

Tomcat实现JSP动态请求解析的基本架构

wKioL1NrqMnjx4uUAAKZ_TrMPLU912.jpg

说明:由后端Tomcat负责解析动态jsp请求,但为了提高响应性能,在同一主机内配置Nginx做反向代理,转发所有请求至tomcat即可;

完整的LNMT架构设计

wKiom1NrqReyIsVnAAXyNugPRuA080.jpg

说明:本篇博客主要讲解单台Haproxy到后端多台Tomcat服务器的实现;


安装配置

Tomcat安装配置

安装JDK

1
2
3
4
5
# rpm -ivh jdk-7u9-linux-x64.rpm
# vi /etc/profile.d/java.sh
    export JAVA_HOME=/usr/java/latest
    export PATH=$JAVA_HOME/bin:$PATH
# . /etc/profile.d/java.sh

安装Tomcat

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
# tar xf apache-tomcat-7.0.42.tar.gz -C /usr/local/
# cd /usr/local/
# ln -sv apache-tomcat-7.0.42/ tomcat
# vi /etc/profile.d/tomcat.sh
    export CATALINA_HOME=/usr/local/tomcat
    export PATH=$CATALINA_HOME/bin:$PATH
# . /etc/profile.d/tomcat.sh
# 编写服务脚本
# vi /etc/init.d/tomcat
#!/bin/sh
# Tomcat init script for Linux.
#
# chkconfig: 2345 96 14
# description: The Apache Tomcat servlet/JSP container.
# JAVA_OPTS='-Xms64m -Xmx128m'
JAVA_HOME=/usr/java/latest
CATALINA_HOME=/usr/local/tomcat
export JAVA_HOME CATALINA_HOME
case $1 in
start)
  exec $CATALINA_HOME/bin/catalina.sh start ;;
stop)
  exec $CATALINA_HOME/bin/catalina.sh stop;;
restart)
  $CATALINA_HOME/bin/catalina.sh stop
  sleep 2
  exec $CATALINA_HOME/bin/catalina.sh start ;;
*)
  echo "Usage: `basename $0` {start|stop|restart}"
  exit 1
  ;;
esac
# chmod +x /etc/init.d/tomcat

配置Tomcat

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
# cd /usr/local/tomcat/conf
# vi server.xml
<?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8'?>
<Server port="8005" shutdown="SHUTDOWN">
  <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.core.AprLifecycleListener" SSLEngine="on" />
  <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.core.JasperListener" />
  <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.core.JreMemoryLeakPreventionListener" />
  <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.mbeans.GlobalResourcesLifecycleListener" />
  <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.core.ThreadLocalLeakPreventionListener" />
  <GlobalNamingResources>
    <Resource name="UserDatabase" auth="Container"
              type="org.apache.catalina.UserDatabase"
              description="User database that can be updated and saved"
              factory="org.apache.catalina.users.MemoryUserDatabaseFactory"
              pathname="conf/tomcat-users.xml" />
  </GlobalNamingResources>
  <Service name="Catalina">
    <Connector port="9000" protocol="HTTP/1.1"    # 配置HTTP连接器监听9000端口
               connectionTimeout="20000"
               redirectPort="8443" />
    <Connector port="8009" protocol="AJP/1.3" redirectPort="8443" />
    <Engine name="Catalina" defaultHost="localhost">
      <Realm className="org.apache.catalina.realm.LockOutRealm">
        <Realm className="org.apache.catalina.realm.UserDatabaseRealm"
               resourceName="UserDatabase"/>
      </Realm>
      <Host name="xxrenzhe.lnmmp.com"  appBase="webapps" # 新增Host,配置相应的Context
            unpackWARs="true" autoDeploy="true">
            <Context path="" docBase="lnmmpapp" /> # 配置的应用程序目录是webapps/lnmmpapp
        <Valve className="org.apache.catalina.valves.AccessLogValve" directory="logs"
               prefix="lnmmp_access_log." suffix=".txt"
               pattern="%h %l %u %t &quot;%r&quot; %s %b" />
      </Host>
      <Host name="localhost"  appBase="webapps"
            unpackWARs="true" autoDeploy="true">
        <Valve className="org.apache.catalina.valves.AccessLogValve" directory="logs"
               prefix="localhost_access_log." suffix=".txt"
               pattern="%h %l %u %t &quot;%r&quot; %s %b" />
      </Host>
    </Engine>
  </Service>
</Server>
# 创建应用程序相关目录
# cd /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/
# mkdir -pv lnmmpapp/WEB-INF/{classes,lib}
# cd lnmmpapp
# vi index.jsp # 编写首页文件
<%@ page language="java" %>
<html>
  <head><title>Tomcat1</title></head># 在Tomcat2主机上替换为Tomcat2
  <body>
    <h1><font color="red">Tomcat1.lnmmp.com</font></h1>#  在Tomcat2主机上替换为Tomcat2.lnmmp.com,color修改为blue
    <table align="centre" border="1">
      <tr>
        <td>Session ID</td>
    <% session.setAttribute("lnmmp.com","lnmmp.com"); %>
        <td><%= session.getId() %></td>
      </tr>
      <tr>
        <td>Created on</td>
        <td><%= session.getCreationTime() %></td>
     </tr>
    </table>
  </body>
</html>

启动Tomcat服务

1
2
chkconfig --add tomcat
service tomcat start

Nginx配置

Nginx安装详见博文“如何测试Nginx的高性能

配置Nginx

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
# vi /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
worker_processes  2;
error_log  /var/log/nginx/nginx.error.log;
pid        /var/run/nginx.pid;
events {
    worker_connections  1024;
}
http {
    include       mime.types;
    default_type  application/octet-stream;
    log_format  main  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
                      '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
                      '"$http_user_agent" "$http_x_forwarded_for"';
    sendfile        on;
    keepalive_timeout  65;
    fastcgi_cache_path /www/cache levels=1:2 keys_zone=fcgicache:10m inactive=5m;
    server {    # 处理前端发来的图片请求;
        listen       4040;
        server_name  xxrenzhe.lnmmp.com;
        access_log  /var/log/nginx/nginx-img.access.log  main;
        root /www/lnmmp.com;
        valid_referers none blocked xxrenzhe.lnmmp.com *.lnmmp.com; # 配置一定的反盗链策略;
        if ($invalid_referer) {
            rewrite ^/ http://xxrenzhe.lnmmp.com/404.html;
        }
    }
    server {
        listen       80;    # 处理前端发来的静态请求;
        server_name  xxrenzhe.lnmmp.com;
        access_log  /var/log/nginx/nginx-static.access.log  main;
        location / {
            root   /www/lnmmp.com;
            index  index.php index.html index.htm;
        }
        gzip on;    # 对静态文件开启压缩传输功能;
        gzip_comp_level 6;
        gzip_buffers 16 8k;
        gzip_http_version 1.1;
        gzip_types text/plain text/css application/x-javascript text/xml application/xml;
        gzip_disable msie6;
    }
    server {
        listen       8080;
        server_name  xxrenzhe.lnmmp.com;
        access_log  /var/log/nginx/nginx-tomcat.access.log  main;
        location / {
            proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1:9000;  # 将全部动态请求都转发至后端tomcat
        }
    }
}

启动服务

1
service nginx start

Haproxy安装配置

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
# yum -y install haproxy
# vi /etc/haproxy/haproxy.cfg
global
    log         127.0.0.1 local2
    chroot      /var/lib/haproxy
    pidfile     /var/run/haproxy.pid
    maxconn     4000
    user         haproxy
    group       haproxy
    daemon
defaults
    mode                   http
    log                     global
    option                  httplog
    option                  dontlognull
    option http-server-close
    option forwardfor except 127.0.0.0/8
    option                  redispatch
    retries                 3
    timeout http-request    10s
    timeout queue           1m
    timeout connect         10s
    timeout client          1m
    timeout server          1m
    timeout http-keep-alive 10s
    timeout check           10s
    maxconn                 30000
listen stats    # 配置haproxy的状态信息页面
    mode http
    bind 0.0.0.0:1080
    stats enable
    stats hide-version
    stats uri     /haproxyadmin?stats
    stats realm   Haproxy\ Statistics
    stats auth    admin:admin
    stats admin if TRUE
frontend http-in
    bind *:80
    mode http
    log global
    option httpclose
    option logasap
    option dontlognull
    capture request  header Host len 20
    capture request  header Referer len 60
    acl url_img         path_beg       -i /images
    acl url_img          path_end       -i .jpg .jpeg .gif .png
    acl url_dynamic      path_end       -i .jsp .do
    use_backend img_servers if url_img # 图片请求发送至图片服务器;
    use_backend dynamic_servers if url_dynamic # JSP动态请求发送至Tomcat服务器;
    default_backend static_servers    # 其余静态请求都发送至静态服务器;
backend img_servers
    balance roundrobin
    server img-srv1 192.168.0.25:4040 check maxconn 6000
    server img-srv2 192.168.0.35:4040 check maxconn 6000
backend static_servers
    cookie node insert nocache
    option httpchk HEAD /health_check.html
    server static-srv1 192.168.0.25:80 check maxconn 6000 cookie static-srv1
    server static-srv2 192.168.0.35:80 check maxconn 6000 cookie static-srv2
backend dynamic_servers
    balance roundrobin
    server tomcat1 192.168.0.25:8080 check maxconn 1000
    server tomcat2 192.168.0.35:8080 check maxconn 1000

启动服务

1
service haproxy start

本地DNS解析设置

1
xxrenzhe.lnmmp.com A 172.16.25.109 # 配置为haproxy的IP地址即可

访问验证

wKioL1Nrq1nB5OdXAALLOgv4fJM431.jpg

wKiom1Nrq6SCsO8mAALN8_JzTYI243.jpg

说明:由于前端Haproxy调度动态请求是roundrobin算法,故每次刷新都会轮询分配到不同的Tomcat节点上,且每次获得的session都是不一样的;


实现session绑定

将同一用户的请求调度至后端同一台Tomcat上,不至于一刷新就导致session丢失;

修改Tomcat配置

1
2
# vi /usr/local/tomcat/conf/server.xml # 修改如下行内容,添加jvmRoute字段
<Engine name="Catalina" defaultHost="localhost" jvmRoute="tomcat1"# 在Tomcat2上替换为tomcat2

修改Haproxy配置

1
2
3
4
5
6
# vi /etc/haproxy/haproxy.cfg # 为后端动态节点添加cookie绑定机制
backend dynamic_servers
    cookie node insert nocache
    balance roundrobin
    server tomcat1 192.168.0.25:8080 check maxconn 1000 cookie tomcat1
    server tomcat2 192.168.0.35:8080 check maxconn 1000 cookie tomcat1

访问验证

wKioL1NrrEOyj3ffAALgfNO9W3A279.jpg

说明:当第一次访问成功后,再次刷新并不会改变分配的Tomcat节点和session信息,说明session绑定成功;


实现session保持

Tomcat支持Session集群,可在各Tomcat服务器间复制全部session信息,当后端一台Tomcat服务器宕机后,Haproxy重新调度用户请求后,在其它正常的Tomcat服务上依然存在用户原先的session信息;

Session集群可在Tomcat服务器规模(一般10台以下)不大时使用,否则会导致复制代价过高;

配置实现

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
# vi /usr/local/tomcat/conf/server.xml # 完整配置
<?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8'?>
<Server port="8005" shutdown="SHUTDOWN">
  <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.core.AprLifecycleListener" SSLEngine="on" />
  <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.core.JasperListener" />
  <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.core.JreMemoryLeakPreventionListener" />
  <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.mbeans.GlobalResourcesLifecycleListener" />
  <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.core.ThreadLocalLeakPreventionListener" />
  <GlobalNamingResources>
    <Resource name="UserDatabase" auth="Container"
              type="org.apache.catalina.UserDatabase"
              description="User database that can be updated and saved"
              factory="org.apache.catalina.users.MemoryUserDatabaseFactory"
              pathname="conf/tomcat-users.xml" />
  </GlobalNamingResources>
  <Service name="Catalina">
    <Connector port="9000" protocol="HTTP/1.1"
               connectionTimeout="20000"
               redirectPort="8443" />
    <Connector port="8009" protocol="AJP/1.3" redirectPort="8443" />
    <Engine name="Catalina" defaultHost="localhost" jvmRoute="tomcat1"># 在Tomcat2主机上替换为tomcat2
<Cluster className="org.apache.catalina.ha.tcp.SimpleTcpCluster"    # 添加集群相关配置;
                 channelSendOptions="8">
          <Manager className="org.apache.catalina.ha.session.DeltaManager" # 集群会话管理器选择DeltaManager;
                   expireSessionsOnShutdown="false"
                   notifyListenersOnReplication="true"/>
          <Channel className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.group.GroupChannel"# 为集群中的几点定义通信信道;
            <Membership className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.membership.McastService" # 定义使用McastService确定集群中的成员
                        address="228.25.25.4"    # 集群内session复制所用的多播地址
                        port="45564"
                        frequency="500"
                        dropTime="3000"/>
            <Receiver className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.transport.nio.NioReceiver" # 定义以NioReceiver方式接收其它节点的数据;
                      address="192.168.0.25"# 在Tomcat2主机上替换为192.168.0.35
                      port="4000"
                      autoBind="100"
                      selectorTimeout="5000"
                      maxThreads="6"/>
            <Sender className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.transport.ReplicationTransmitter"# 定义数据复制的发送器;
              <Transport className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.transport.nio.PooledParallelSender"/>
            </Sender>
            <Interceptor className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.group.interceptors.TcpFailureDetector"/>
            <Interceptor className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.group.interceptors.MessageDispatch15Interceptor"/>
          </Channel>
          <Valve className="org.apache.catalina.ha.tcp.ReplicationValve"
                 filter=""/>
          <Valve className="org.apache.catalina.ha.session.JvmRouteBinderValve"/>
          <Deployer className="org.apache.catalina.ha.deploy.FarmWarDeployer"
                    tempDir="/tmp/war-temp/"
                    deployDir="/tmp/war-deploy/"
                    watchDir="/tmp/war-listen/"
                    watchEnabled="false"/>
          <ClusterListener className="org.apache.catalina.ha.session.JvmRouteSessionIDBinderListener"/>
          <ClusterListener className="org.apache.catalina.ha.session.ClusterSessionListener"/>
        </Cluster>
      <Realm className="org.apache.catalina.realm.LockOutRealm">
        <Realm className="org.apache.catalina.realm.UserDatabaseRealm"
               resourceName="UserDatabase"/>
      </Realm>
      <Host name="xxrenzhe.lnmmp.com"  appBase="webapps"
            unpackWARs="true" autoDeploy="true">
            <Context path="" docBase="lnmmpapp" />
        <Valve className="org.apache.catalina.valves.AccessLogValve" directory="logs"
               prefix="lnmmp_access_log." suffix=".txt"
               pattern="%h %l %u %t &quot;%r&quot; %s %b" />
      </Host>
      <Host name="localhost"  appBase="webapps"
            unpackWARs="true" autoDeploy="true">
        <Valve className="org.apache.catalina.valves.AccessLogValve" directory="logs"
               prefix="localhost_access_log." suffix=".txt"
               pattern="%h %l %u %t &quot;%r&quot; %s %b" />
      </Host>
    </Engine>
  </Service>
</Server>
# cd /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/lnmmpapp/WEB-INF/
# cp /usr/local/tomcat/conf/web.xml .
# vi web.xml # 添加如下一行,无需放置于任何容器中
<distributable\>

查看日志

1
2
3
4
# tailf /usr/local/tomcat/logs/catalina.out
May 08, 2014 11:08:13 PM org.apache.catalina.ha.tcp.SimpleTcpCluster memberAdded
INFO: Replication member added:org.apache.catalina.tribes.membership.MemberImpl[tcp://{192, 168, 0, 35}:4000,{192, 168, 0, 35},4000, alive=1029, securePort=-1, UDP Port=-1, id={106 35 -62 -54 -28 61 74 -98 -86 -11 -69 104 28 -114 32 -69 }, payload={}, command={}, domain={}, ]
# 查看到如上信息,则说明session集群已生效,tomcat1已检测到tomcat2节点的存在

访问验证

第一次访问

wKioL1NrraHj1dGrAAKnUnDbem8056.jpg

然后停止tomcat1的nginx服务(service nginx stop),再次访问

wKiom1NrriChIXusAALXeQXr7wo656.jpg

说明:虽然因为tomcat1故障,导致用户请求被调度到了tomcat2节点上,但Session ID并未发生改变,即session集群内的所有节点都保存有全局的session信息,很好的实现了用户访问的不中断;,










本文转自 xxrenzhe11 51CTO博客,原文链接:http://blog.51cto.com/xxrenzhe/1408680,如需转载请自行联系原作者

网友评论

登录后评论
0/500
评论
余二五
+ 关注