以太坊区块链入门

  1. 云栖社区>
  2. 博客>
  3. 正文

以太坊区块链入门

netkiller 2018-01-20 22:03:48 浏览5152
展开阅读全文

以太坊私链入门

本文作者最近我在找工作,有意向致电 13113668890

Mr. Neo Chen (陈景峯), netkiller, BG7NYT


中国广东省深圳市龙华新区民治街道溪山美地
518131
+86 13113668890


版权声明

转载请与作者联系,转载时请务必标明文章原始出处和作者信息及本声明。

by-nc-sa.png
文档出处:
http://netkiller.github.io
http://netkiller.sourceforge.net
weixin.jpg

微信扫描二维码进入 Netkiller 微信订阅号 

QQ群:128659835 请注明“读者”

2018-01-20

摘要

本文采用碎片化写作,原文会不定期更新,请尽量阅读原文。

http://www.netkiller.cn/journal/ethereum.html


1. 背景

区块链是什么?一句话,它是一种特殊的(非关系型)分布式数据库,这种数据库只能做插入和查找操作,并且没有管理员。

首先,区块链的主要作用是储存信息。任何需要保存的信息,都可以写入区块链,也可以从里面读取,所以它是数据库。

其次,任何人都可以架设服务器,加入区块链网络,成为一个节点。区块链的世界里面,没有中心节点,每个节点都是平等的,都保存着整个数据库。你可以向任何一个节点,写入/读取数据,因为所有节点最后都会同步,保证区块链一致。

2. 软件安装与配置

2.1. Ubuntu

2.1.1. 安装 geth

安装环境



Ubuntu 17.10

				
sudo apt upgrade -y				
sudo apt install software-properties-common
sudo add-apt-repository -y ppa:ethereum/ethereum
sudo apt update
sudo apt install ethereum			
				
				
				
neo@netkiller ~ % geth version
Geth
Version: 1.7.3-stable
Git Commit: 4bb3c89d44e372e6a9ab85a8be0c9345265c763a
Architecture: amd64
Protocol Versions: [63 62]
Network Id: 1
Go Version: go1.9.1
Operating System: linux
GOPATH=
GOROOT=/usr/lib/go-1.9
				
				

2.1.2. 安装 solc

				
sudo apt install solc -y
				
				
				
neo@netkiller ~ % solc --version
solc, the solidity compiler commandline interface
Version: 0.4.19+commit.c4cbbb05.Linux.g++				
				
				

2.2. Windows

				
访问 https://geth.ethereum.org/downloads/
下载并安装 Geth for Windows				
				
			

2.3. Mac OS

				
brew tap ethereum/ethereum
brew install ethereum				
				
			

2.4. 编译安装

				
git clone https://github.com/ethereum/go-ethereum
sudo apt-get install -y build-essential golang
cd go-ethereum
make geth				
				
			

3. 创世区块

		
cd ~
mkdir -p ethereum
cd ethereum		
		
		

3.1. 初始化创世区块

创建文件 genesis.json

			
{
  "nonce": "0x0000000000000042",
  "difficulty": "0x020000",
  "mixhash": "0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000",
  "coinbase": "0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000",
  "timestamp": "0x00",
  "parentHash": "0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000",
  "extraData": "0x11bbe8db4e347b4e8c937c1c8370e4b5ed33adb3db69cbdb7a38e1e50b1b82fa",
  "gasLimit": "0x4c4b40",
  "config": {
      "chainId": 15,
      "homesteadBlock": 0,
      "eip155Block": 0,
      "eip158Block": 0
  },
  "alloc": { }
}
			
			



mixhash: 与nonce配合用于挖矿,由上一个区块的一部分生成的hash。注意他和nonce的设置需要满足以太坊的Yellow paper, 4.3.4. Block Header Validity, (44)章节所描述的条件。.

nonce: nonce就是一个64位随机数,用于挖矿,注意他和mixhash的设置需要满足以太坊的Yellow paper, 4.3.4. Block Header Validity, (44)章节所描述的条件。

difficulty: 设置当前区块的难度,如果难度过大,cpu挖矿就很难,这里设置较小难度

alloc: 用来预置账号以及账号的以太币数量,因为私有链挖矿比较容易,所以我们不需要预置有币的账号,需要的时候自己创建即可以。

coinbase: 矿工的账号,随便填

timestamp: 设置创世块的时间戳

parentHash: 上一个区块的hash值,因为是创世块,所以这个值是0

extraData: 附加信息,随便填,可以填你的个性信息

gasLimit: 该值设置对GAS的消耗总量限制,用来限制区块能包含的交易信息总和,因为我们是私有链,所以填最大。

初始化创世区块

			
neo@netkiller ~/ethereum % geth init genesis.json 
WARN [01-19|17:35:17] No etherbase set and no accounts found as default 
INFO [01-19|17:35:17] Allocated cache and file handles         database=/home/neo/.ethereum/geth/chaindata cache=16 handles=16
INFO [01-19|17:35:17] Writing custom genesis block 
INFO [01-19|17:35:17] Successfully wrote genesis state         database=chaindata                          hash=611596…424d04
INFO [01-19|17:35:17] Allocated cache and file handles         database=/home/neo/.ethereum/geth/lightchaindata cache=16 handles=16
INFO [01-19|17:35:18] Writing custom genesis block 
INFO [01-19|17:35:18] Successfully wrote genesis state         database=lightchaindata                          hash=611596…424d04		
			
			

默认目录是 /home/neo/.ethereum/ 你可以通过 --datadir 参数指定目录

			
neo@netkiller ~/ethereum % geth --datadir data init genesis.json
WARN [01-19|17:38:16] No etherbase set and no accounts found as default 
INFO [01-19|17:38:16] Allocated cache and file handles         database=/home/neo/ethereum/data/geth/chaindata cache=16 handles=16
INFO [01-19|17:38:17] Writing custom genesis block 
INFO [01-19|17:38:17] Successfully wrote genesis state         database=chaindata                              hash=611596…424d04
INFO [01-19|17:38:17] Allocated cache and file handles         database=/home/neo/ethereum/data/geth/lightchaindata cache=16 handles=16
INFO [01-19|17:38:17] Writing custom genesis block 
INFO [01-19|17:38:17] Successfully wrote genesis state         database=lightchaindata                              hash=611596…424d04		

neo@netkiller ~/ethereum % find data 
data
data/keystore
data/geth
data/geth/chaindata
data/geth/chaindata/LOCK
data/geth/chaindata/LOG
data/geth/chaindata/MANIFEST-000000
data/geth/chaindata/CURRENT
data/geth/chaindata/000001.log
data/geth/lightchaindata
data/geth/lightchaindata/LOCK
data/geth/lightchaindata/LOG
data/geth/lightchaindata/MANIFEST-000000
data/geth/lightchaindata/CURRENT
data/geth/lightchaindata/000001.log		
			
			

目录结构

			
data
├── geth
│  ├── chaindata
│  │  ├── 000001.log
│  │  ├── CURRENT
│  │  ├── LOCK
│  │  ├── LOG
│  │  └── MANIFEST-000000
│  └── lightchaindata
│      ├── 000001.log
│      ├── CURRENT
│      ├── LOCK
│      ├── LOG
│      └── MANIFEST-000000
└── keystore		
		
			

3.2. 启动节点

			
neo@netkiller ~/ethereum % geth --networkid 123456 --rpc --rpccorsdomain "*" --nodiscover console 
WARN [01-19|17:47:06] No etherbase set and no accounts found as default 
INFO [01-19|17:47:06] Starting peer-to-peer node               instance=Geth/v1.7.3-stable-4bb3c89d/linux-amd64/go1.9.1
INFO [01-19|17:47:06] Allocated cache and file handles         database=/home/neo/.ethereum/geth/chaindata cache=128 handles=1024
INFO [01-19|17:47:06] Initialised chain configuration          config="{ChainID: 15 Homestead: 0 DAO: <nil> DAOSupport: false EIP150: <nil> EIP155: 0 EIP158: 0 Byzantium: <nil> Engine: unknown}"
INFO [01-19|17:47:06] Disk storage enabled for ethash caches   dir=/home/neo/.ethereum/geth/ethash count=3
INFO [01-19|17:47:06] Disk storage enabled for ethash DAGs     dir=/home/neo/.ethash               count=2
INFO [01-19|17:47:06] Initialising Ethereum protocol           versions="[63 62]" network=123456
INFO [01-19|17:47:06] Loaded most recent local header          number=0 hash=611596…424d04 td=131072
INFO [01-19|17:47:06] Loaded most recent local full block      number=0 hash=611596…424d04 td=131072
INFO [01-19|17:47:06] Loaded most recent local fast block      number=0 hash=611596…424d04 td=131072
INFO [01-19|17:47:06] Loaded local transaction journal         transactions=0 dropped=0
INFO [01-19|17:47:06] Regenerated local transaction journal    transactions=0 accounts=0
INFO [01-19|17:47:06] Starting P2P networking 
INFO [01-19|17:47:06] RLPx listener up                         self="enode://9f6490ffb5236f2ddc5710ae73d47c740e0a3644bbd2d67029cf4a6c4693d2f470b642fd2cc3507f7e851df60aaeb730a1270b7a477f91ec5b6b17a8a4b40527@[::]:30303?discport=0"
INFO [01-19|17:47:06] IPC endpoint opened: /home/neo/.ethereum/geth.ipc 
INFO [01-19|17:47:06] HTTP endpoint opened: http://127.0.0.1:8545 
Welcome to the Geth JavaScript console!

instance: Geth/v1.7.3-stable-4bb3c89d/linux-amd64/go1.9.1
 modules: admin:1.0 debug:1.0 eth:1.0 miner:1.0 net:1.0 personal:1.0 rpc:1.0 txpool:1.0 web3:1.0

> INFO [01-19|17:47:09] Mapped network port                      proto=tcp extport=30303 intport=30303 interface="UPNP IGDv1-IP1"			
			
			



identity: 区块链的标示,随便填写,用于标示目前网络的名字

init: 指定创世块文件的位置,并创建初始块

datadir: 设置当前区块链网络数据存放的位置

port: 网络监听端口

rpc: 启动rpc通信,可以进行智能合约的部署和调试

rpcapi: 设置允许连接的rpc的客户端,一般为db,eth,net,web3

networkid: 设置当前区块链的网络ID,用于区分不同的网络,是一个数字

console: 启动命令行模式,可以在Geth中执行命令

3.2.1. rpcaddr

默认是 127.0.0.1 

HTTP endpoint closed: http://127.0.0.1:8545

通过 --rpcaddr="0.0.0.0" 指定监听地址

HTTP endpoint opened: http://0.0.0.0:8545

				
neo@netkiller ~/ethereum % geth --networkid 123456 --rpc --rpcaddr="0.0.0.0" --rpccorsdomain "*" --nodiscover console  
INFO [01-20|01:41:33] Starting peer-to-peer node               instance=Geth/v1.7.3-stable-4bb3c89d/linux-amd64/go1.9.1
INFO [01-20|01:41:33] Allocated cache and file handles         database=/home/neo/.ethereum/geth/chaindata cache=128 handles=1024
INFO [01-20|01:41:34] Initialised chain configuration          config="{ChainID: 15 Homestead: 0 DAO: <nil> DAOSupport: false EIP150: <nil> EIP155: 0 EIP158: 0 Byzantium: <nil> Engine: unknown}"
INFO [01-20|01:41:34] Disk storage enabled for ethash caches   dir=/home/neo/.ethereum/geth/ethash count=3
INFO [01-20|01:41:34] Disk storage enabled for ethash DAGs     dir=/home/neo/.ethash               count=2
INFO [01-20|01:41:34] Initialising Ethereum protocol           versions="[63 62]" network=123456
INFO [01-20|01:41:34] Loaded most recent local header          number=531 hash=1a2707…3a27bc td=79083846
INFO [01-20|01:41:34] Loaded most recent local full block      number=531 hash=1a2707…3a27bc td=79083846
INFO [01-20|01:41:34] Loaded most recent local fast block      number=531 hash=1a2707…3a27bc td=79083846
INFO [01-20|01:41:34] Loaded local transaction journal         transactions=0 dropped=0
INFO [01-20|01:41:34] Regenerated local transaction journal    transactions=0 accounts=0
WARN [01-20|01:41:34] Blockchain not empty, fast sync disabled 
INFO [01-20|01:41:34] Starting P2P networking 
INFO [01-20|01:41:34] RLPx listener up                         self="enode://9f6490ffb5236f2ddc5710ae73d47c740e0a3644bbd2d67029cf4a6c4693d2f470b642fd2cc3507f7e851df60aaeb730a1270b7a477f91ec5b6b17a8a4b40527@[::]:30303?discport=0"
INFO [01-20|01:41:34] IPC endpoint opened: /home/neo/.ethereum/geth.ipc 
INFO [01-20|01:41:34] HTTP endpoint opened: http://0.0.0.0:8545 
Welcome to the Geth JavaScript console!

instance: Geth/v1.7.3-stable-4bb3c89d/linux-amd64/go1.9.1
coinbase: 0x83fda0ba7e6cfa8d7319d78fa0e6b753a2bcb5a6
at block: 531 (Tue, 14 Nov 2017 17:36:05 HST)
 datadir: /home/neo/.ethereum
 modules: admin:1.0 debug:1.0 eth:1.0 miner:1.0 net:1.0 personal:1.0 rpc:1.0 txpool:1.0 web3:1.0

> INFO [01-20|01:41:40] Mapped network port                      proto=tcp extport=30303 intport=30303 interface="UPNP IGDv1-IP1"
				
				

3.3. 使用节点进行挖矿

3.3.1. 启动矿工开始挖矿

				
> miner.start(1)		
				
				

这里的1表示只使用一个线程运行,第一次运行时将开始创建DAG文件,只需等待进度条到100,则将开始挖矿。 实际你看到的挖矿速度很快,这是因为我们已经在初始化创世区块时配置为:"nonce": "0x0000000000000042"。 “0x42”难度能让你在私有测试网链上快速挖以太币。

提示

挖矿时必然有矿工账户,而系统默认使用创建的第一个账号。

				
> miner.start(1)
INFO [01-19|21:06:43] Updated mining threads                   threads=1
INFO [01-19|21:06:43] Transaction pool price threshold updated price=18000000000
INFO [01-19|21:06:43] Starting mining operation 
null
> INFO [01-19|21:06:43] Commit new mining work                   number=1 txs=0 uncles=0 elapsed=717.552µs
INFO [01-19|21:06:46] Generating ethash verification cache     epoch=0 percentage=91 elapsed=3.000s
INFO [01-19|21:06:46] Generated ethash verification cache      epoch=0 elapsed=3.273s
INFO [01-19|21:06:51] Generating DAG in progress               epoch=0 percentage=0  elapsed=5.056s
INFO [01-19|21:06:56] Generating DAG in progress               epoch=0 percentage=1  elapsed=10.140s
INFO [01-19|21:07:01] Generating DAG in progress               epoch=0 percentage=2  elapsed=15.119s
INFO [01-19|21:07:06] Generating DAG in progress               epoch=0 percentage=3  elapsed=19.924s
INFO [01-19|21:07:11] Generating DAG in progress               epoch=0 percentage=4  elapsed=24.739s
INFO [01-19|21:07:16] Generating DAG in progress               epoch=0 percentage=5  elapsed=29.473s
INFO [01-19|21:07:22] Generating DAG in progress               epoch=0 percentage=6  elapsed=35.641s
INFO [01-19|21:07:26] Generating DAG in progress               epoch=0 percentage=7  elapsed=40.374s
INFO [01-19|21:07:31] Generating DAG in progress               epoch=0 percentage=8  elapsed=45.134s
INFO [01-19|21:07:36] Generating DAG in progress               epoch=0 percentage=9  elapsed=49.908s
INFO [01-19|21:07:41] Generating DAG in progress               epoch=0 percentage=10 elapsed=54.633s	
......
......
......
INFO [01-19|21:22:43] Generated ethash verification cache      epoch=0 elapsed=15m57.328s
INFO [01-19|21:22:47] Generating ethash verification cache     epoch=1 percentage=17 elapsed=3.031s
INFO [01-19|21:22:50] Generating ethash verification cache     epoch=1 percentage=34 elapsed=6.056s
INFO [01-19|21:22:53] Generating ethash verification cache     epoch=1 percentage=49 elapsed=9.562s
INFO [01-19|21:22:57] Generating ethash verification cache     epoch=1 percentage=70 elapsed=13.115s
INFO [01-19|21:23:00] Generating ethash verification cache     epoch=1 percentage=90 elapsed=16.123s
INFO [01-19|21:23:01] Generated ethash verification cache      epoch=1 elapsed=17.576s
INFO [01-19|21:23:19] Generating DAG in progress               epoch=1 percentage=0  elapsed=18.198s
INFO [01-19|21:23:32] Successfully sealed new block            number=1 hash=e2b5b9…9b1bfe
INFO [01-19|21:23:32]  mined potential block                  number=1 hash=e2b5b9…9b1bfe
INFO [01-19|21:23:32] Commit new mining work                   number=2 txs=0 uncles=0 elapsed=1.188ms
INFO [01-19|21:23:37] Generating DAG in progress               epoch=1 percentage=1  elapsed=35.913s
INFO [01-19|21:23:41] Successfully sealed new block            number=2 hash=62db3f…e27b50
INFO [01-19|21:23:41]  mined potential block                  number=2 hash=62db3f…e27b50
INFO [01-19|21:23:41] Commit new mining work                   number=3 txs=0 uncles=0 elapsed=772.239µs
INFO [01-19|21:23:43] Successfully sealed new block            number=3 hash=34384b…c387f2
INFO [01-19|21:23:43]  mined potential block                  number=3 hash=34384b…c387f2
INFO [01-19|21:23:43] Commit new mining work                   number=4 txs=0 uncles=0 elapsed=1.002ms
INFO [01-19|21:23:55] Generating DAG in progress               epoch=1 percentage=2  elapsed=53.757s
INFO [01-19|21:24:13] Generating DAG in progress               epoch=1 percentage=3  elapsed=1m11.561s
INFO [01-19|21:24:30] Generating DAG in progress               epoch=1 percentage=4  elapsed=1m28.986s
INFO [01-19|21:24:30] Successfully sealed new block            number=4 hash=681970…462135
INFO [01-19|21:24:30]  mined potential block                  number=4 hash=681970…462135
INFO [01-19|21:24:30] Commit new mining work                   number=5 txs=0 uncles=0 elapsed=833.629µs
INFO [01-19|21:24:36] Successfully sealed new block            number=5 hash=7b058b…d2f07a
INFO [01-19|21:24:36]  mined potential block                  number=5 hash=7b058b…d2f07a
INFO [01-19|21:24:36] Commit new mining work                   number=6 txs=0 uncles=0 elapsed=897.815µs
INFO [01-19|21:24:43] Successfully sealed new block            number=6 hash=a5fc3d…b1221e
INFO [01-19|21:24:43]  block reached canonical chain          number=1 hash=e2b5b9…9b1bfe
INFO [01-19|21:24:43]  mined potential block                  number=6 hash=a5fc3d…b1221e
INFO [01-19|21:24:43] Commit new mining work                   number=7 txs=0 uncles=0 elapsed=758.061µs
INFO [01-19|21:24:47] Successfully sealed new block            number=7 hash=003b02…e886fd
INFO [01-19|21:24:47]  block reached canonical chain          number=2 hash=62db3f…e27b50
INFO [01-19|21:24:47]  mined potential block                  number=7 hash=003b02…e886fd
INFO [01-19|21:24:47] Commit new mining work                   number=8 txs=0 uncles=0 elapsed=920.862µs
INFO [01-19|21:24:48] Generating DAG in progress               epoch=1 percentage=5  elapsed=1m46.827s
INFO [01-19|21:25:06] Generating DAG in progress               epoch=1 percentage=6  elapsed=2m4.338s
INFO [01-19|21:25:23] Successfully sealed new block            number=8 hash=fd23c9…361c65
INFO [01-19|21:25:23]  block reached canonical chain          number=3 hash=34384b…c387f2
INFO [01-19|21:25:23]  mined potential block                  number=8 hash=fd23c9…361c65
INFO [01-19|21:25:23] Commit new mining work                   number=9 txs=0 uncles=0 elapsed=825.737µs
INFO [01-19|21:25:23] Generating DAG in progress               epoch=1 percentage=7  elapsed=2m22.061s
				
				

3.3.2. 停止挖矿

				
> miner.stop()
true
>
				
				

3.3.3. 查看所挖金额

				
> eth.getBalance(eth.accounts[0])
70000000000000000000				
				
				

4. 管理

4.1. 控制台

			
neo@netkiller ~/ethereum % geth  --networkid 123456 console
INFO [01-19|22:14:52] Starting peer-to-peer node               instance=Geth/v1.7.3-stable-4bb3c89d/linux-amd64/go1.9.1
INFO [01-19|22:14:52] Allocated cache and file handles         database=/home/neo/.ethereum/geth/chaindata cache=128 handles=1024
INFO [01-19|22:14:52] Initialised chain configuration          config="{ChainID: 15 Homestead: 0 DAO: <nil> DAOSupport: false EIP150: <nil> EIP155: 0 EIP158: 0 Byzantium: <nil> Engine: unknown}"
INFO [01-19|22:14:52] Disk storage enabled for ethash caches   dir=/home/neo/.ethereum/geth/ethash count=3
INFO [01-19|22:14:52] Disk storage enabled for ethash DAGs     dir=/home/neo/.ethash               count=2
INFO [01-19|22:14:52] Initialising Ethereum protocol           versions="[63 62]" network=123456
INFO [01-19|22:14:52] Loaded most recent local header          number=14 hash=70d7f1…45850a td=1966848
INFO [01-19|22:14:52] Loaded most recent local full block      number=14 hash=70d7f1…45850a td=1966848
INFO [01-19|22:14:52] Loaded most recent local fast block      number=14 hash=70d7f1…45850a td=1966848
INFO [01-19|22:14:52] Loaded local transaction journal         transactions=0 dropped=0
INFO [01-19|22:14:52] Regenerated local transaction journal    transactions=0 accounts=0
WARN [01-19|22:14:52] Blockchain not empty, fast sync disabled 
INFO [01-19|22:14:52] Starting P2P networking 

INFO [01-19|22:14:56] UDP listener up                          self=enode://9f6490ffb5236f2ddc5710ae73d47c740e0a3644bbd2d67029cf4a6c4693d2f470b642fd2cc3507f7e851df60aaeb730a1270b7a477f91ec5b6b17a8a4b40527@101.232.64.12:30303
INFO [01-19|22:14:56] RLPx listener up                         self=enode://9f6490ffb5236f2ddc5710ae73d47c740e0a3644bbd2d67029cf4a6c4693d2f470b642fd2cc3507f7e851df60aaeb730a1270b7a477f91ec5b6b17a8a4b40527@101.232.64.12:30303
INFO [01-19|22:14:56] IPC endpoint opened: /home/neo/.ethereum/geth.ipc 
Welcome to the Geth JavaScript console!

instance: Geth/v1.7.3-stable-4bb3c89d/linux-amd64/go1.9.1
coinbase: 0x83fda0ba7e6cfa8d7319d78fa0e6b753a2bcb5a6
at block: 14 (Fri, 19 Jan 2018 21:27:16 HST)
 datadir: /home/neo/.ethereum
 modules: admin:1.0 debug:1.0 eth:1.0 miner:1.0 net:1.0 personal:1.0 rpc:1.0 txpool:1.0 web3:1.0

> 
> INFO [01-19|22:14:56] Mapped network port                      proto=udp extport=30303 intport=30303 interface="UPNP IGDv1-IP1"			
			
			

4.2. 连接控制台

一般测试启动我们使用 console,如果是正式启动无需使用 console。同事我们使用&符号使其进入后台运行。

			
neo@netkiller ~/ethereum % geth --networkid 123456 --rpc --rpcaddr="0.0.0.0" --rpccorsdomain "*" --nodiscover &			
			
			

进入控制台

			
neo@netkiller ~/ethereum % geth attach
Welcome to the Geth JavaScript console!

instance: Geth/v1.7.3-stable-4bb3c89d/linux-amd64/go1.9.1
coinbase: 0x83fda0ba7e6cfa8d7319d78fa0e6b753a2bcb5a6
at block: 531 (Tue, 14 Nov 2017 17:36:05 HST)
 datadir: /home/neo/.ethereum
 modules: admin:1.0 debug:1.0 eth:1.0 miner:1.0 net:1.0 personal:1.0 rpc:1.0 txpool:1.0 web3:1.0
			
			

退出控制台

			
> exit
			
			

连接远程控制台

			
neo@netkiller ~/ethereum % geth --exec 'eth.coinbase' attach http://172.16.0.10:8545
"0x83fda0ba7e6cfa8d7319d78fa0e6b753a2bcb5a6"			
			
			

4.3. 账号管理

4.3.1. 新建账号

查看账号

				
neo@netkiller ~/ethereum % geth account list 
Account #0: {83fda0ba7e6cfa8d7319d78fa0e6b753a2bcb5a6} keystore:///home/neo/.ethereum/keystore/UTC--2018-01-20T04-04-06.786586541Z--83fda0ba7e6cfa8d7319d78fa0e6b753a2bcb5a6				
				
				

创建账号

				
neo@netkiller ~/ethereum % geth account new
Your new account is locked with a password. Please give a password. Do not forget this password.
Passphrase: 
Repeat passphrase: 
Address: {e8abf98484325fd6afc59b804ac15804b978e607}				
				
				

指定密码

				
echo "abc123" > passwd 
geth  -password passwd account new				
				
				

4.3.2. 查看账号

				
neo@netkiller ~/ethereum % geth account list 
Account #0: {83fda0ba7e6cfa8d7319d78fa0e6b753a2bcb5a6} keystore:///home/neo/.ethereum/keystore/UTC--2018-01-20T04-04-06.786586541Z--83fda0ba7e6cfa8d7319d78fa0e6b753a2bcb5a6
Account #1: {e8abf98484325fd6afc59b804ac15804b978e607} keystore:///home/neo/.ethereum/keystore/UTC--2018-01-20T06-11-23.608902164Z--e8abf98484325fd6afc59b804ac15804b978e607				
				
				

4.4. 运行JS

			
neo@netkiller ~/ethereum % geth --exec "eth.blockNumber" attach
531
			
			
			
$ geth --exec 'loadScript("/tmp/checkbalances.js")' attach http://123.123.123.123:8545
$ geth --jspath "/tmp" --exec 'loadScript("checkbalances.js")' attach http://123.123.123.123:8545			
			
			

5. JavaScript Console

5.1. personal 管理

5.1.1. 创建账号

				
> personal.newAccount()
Passphrase: 
Repeat passphrase: 
"0x83fda0ba7e6cfa8d7319d78fa0e6b753a2bcb5a6"				
				
				

5.1.2. 显示账号

列出所有账号

				
> personal.listAccounts
["0x83fda0ba7e6cfa8d7319d78fa0e6b753a2bcb5a6", "0xe8abf98484325fd6afc59b804ac15804b978e607"]				
				
				

列出指定账号

				
> personal.listAccounts[1]
"0xe8abf98484325fd6afc59b804ac15804b978e607"

> personal.listAccounts[0]
"0x83fda0ba7e6cfa8d7319d78fa0e6b753a2bcb5a6"				
				
				

5.2. eth 管理

5.2.1. 矿工账号

查看默认旷工账号,系统中的第一个账号。

				
> eth.coinbase
"0x83fda0ba7e6cfa8d7319d78fa0e6b753a2bcb5a6"				
				
				

查看账号列表

				
> eth.accounts
["0x83fda0ba7e6cfa8d7319d78fa0e6b753a2bcb5a6", "0xe8abf98484325fd6afc59b804ac15804b978e607"]	

> eth.accounts[0]
"0x83fda0ba7e6cfa8d7319d78fa0e6b753a2bcb5a6"			
				
				

5.2.2. 余额

				
> eth.getBalance(eth.accounts[0])
70000000000000000000
				
				
5.2.2.1. 单位转换

eth.getBalance()返回的余额是以太币的最小面额wei,将wei转换为以太币ether。

					
primary = eth.accounts[0]
balance = web3.fromWei(eth.getBalance(primary), "ether");	
					
					

演示

					
> primary = eth.accounts[0]
"0x83fda0ba7e6cfa8d7319d78fa0e6b753a2bcb5a6"
> balance = web3.fromWei(eth.getBalance(primary), "ether");
70			
					
					

5.2.3. 转账

				
personal.unlockAccount("0x83fda0ba7e6cfa8d7319d78fa0e6b753a2bcb5a6", "", 300)	
eth.sendTransaction({from: '0x83fda0ba7e6cfa8d7319d78fa0e6b753a2bcb5a6', to: '0xe8abf98484325fd6afc59b804ac15804b978e607', value: web3.toWei(1, "ether")})
				
				
				
默认矿工账号
				
> eth.coinbase
"0x83fda0ba7e6cfa8d7319d78fa0e6b753a2bcb5a6"

查看系统中的账号,如果没有请参考上面章节创建

> eth.accounts
["0x83fda0ba7e6cfa8d7319d78fa0e6b753a2bcb5a6", "0xe8abf98484325fd6afc59b804ac15804b978e607"]

转出账号中又 285 个以太币

> web3.fromWei(eth.getBalance(eth.accounts[0]))
285

转入账号目前是 0 

> web3.fromWei(eth.getBalance(eth.accounts[1]))
0

解锁传出账号,否则不能转出。personal.unlockAccount(账号, 密码, 300)

> personal.unlockAccount("0x83fda0ba7e6cfa8d7319d78fa0e6b753a2bcb5a6", "", 300)
true

转账操作

> eth.sendTransaction({from: '0x83fda0ba7e6cfa8d7319d78fa0e6b753a2bcb5a6', to: '0xe8abf98484325fd6afc59b804ac15804b978e607', value: web3.toWei(10, "ether")})
"0xb0674a7fee52555d8712f3a1f0f30fbbbf67ff7b5b4b53ab5d131262613215c6"

如果你现在查看转入账号,你会发现余额仍然是 0 ,交易还未成功写进区块,写进区块的方式是挖矿,所以你必须执行挖矿

> miner.start(1)
null

稍后几分钟,再次查看转入账号,将会看到有10个以太币入账。传出账号会减少10个以太币,同时仍然继续挖矿中。

> web3.fromWei(eth.getBalance(eth.accounts[1]))
10
				
				

5.3. admin 管理

5.3.1. 显示节点

显示当前节点信息

				
> admin.nodeInfo
{
  enode: "enode://9f6490ffb5236f2ddc5710ae73d47c740e0a3644bbd2d67029cf4a6c4693d2f470b642fd2cc3507f7e851df60aaeb730a1270b7a477f91ec5b6b17a8a4b40527@[::]:30303?discport=0",
  id: "9f6490ffb5236f2ddc5710ae73d47c740e0a3644bbd2d67029cf4a6c4693d2f470b642fd2cc3507f7e851df60aaeb730a1270b7a477f91ec5b6b17a8a4b40527",
  ip: "::",
  listenAddr: "[::]:30303",
  name: "Geth/v1.7.3-stable-4bb3c89d/linux-amd64/go1.9.1",
  ports: {
    discovery: 0,
    listener: 30303
  },
  protocols: {
    eth: {
      difficulty: 131072,
      genesis: "0x611596e7979cd4e7ca1531260fa706093a5492ecbdf58f20a39545397e424d04",
      head: "0x611596e7979cd4e7ca1531260fa706093a5492ecbdf58f20a39545397e424d04",
      network: 123456
    }
  }
}
> 

				
				

节点地址

				
enode://9f6490ffb5236f2ddc5710ae73d47c740e0a3644bbd2d67029cf4a6c4693d2f470b642fd2cc3507f7e851df60aaeb730a1270b7a477f91ec5b6b17a8a4b40527@[::]:30303?discport=0				
				
				

[::] 是 ipv6 地址,可以改为 ipv4 地址。

5.3.2. 查看池

				
> admin.peers
[]				
				
				

5.3.3. 添加节点

				
> admin.addPeer('enode://9f6490ffb5236f2ddc5710ae73d47c740e0a3644bbd2d67029cf4a6c4693d2f470b642fd2cc3507f7e851df60aaeb730a1270b7a477f91ec5b6b17a8a4b40527@172.16.0.1:30303')				
				
				

5.4. miner 挖矿管理

5.4.1. 开始挖矿

				
> miner.start(2)
null			
				
				

过几分钟后运行

				
> web3.fromWei(eth.getBalance(eth.coinbase), "ether")
30					
				
				

这时我们已经看到已经产生了30个以太币。

5.4.2. 停止挖矿

				
> miner.stop()
true
>
				
				

6. 总结

7. FAQ

7.1. Error: authentication needed: password or unlock

			
> eth.sendTransaction({from: '0x83fda0ba7e6cfa8d7319d78fa0e6b753a2bcb5a6', to: '0xe8abf98484325fd6afc59b804ac15804b978e607', value: web3.toWei(1, "ether")})
Error: authentication needed: password or unlock
    at web3.js:3143:20
    at web3.js:6347:15
    at web3.js:5081:36
    at <anonymous>:1:1			
			
			

解锁转出账号

			
> personal.unlockAccount("0x83fda0ba7e6cfa8d7319d78fa0e6b753a2bcb5a6", "your_password", 300)
true
> eth.sendTransaction({from: '0x83fda0ba7e6cfa8d7319d78fa0e6b753a2bcb5a6', to: '0xe8abf98484325fd6afc59b804ac15804b978e607', value: web3.toWei(1, "ether")})
"0xd9e8c8fdc71e24ee8052048de4ff0acd7157b872393f37344c8ec2083f3fe48f"			
			
			

网友评论

登录后评论
0/500
评论
netkiller
+ 关注