【读书笔记】设计模式 - 单例模式

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【读书笔记】设计模式 - 单例模式

程序猿小卡 2016-04-29 10:56:18 浏览1093
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神马是单例模式?简单的讲,就是某个构造函数,有且仅有一个实例存在,无论你调用该构造函数来创建实例多少次,如:

function Class(){}    //仅仅用来举例

var instance_01 = new Class();
var instance_02 = new Class();

console.log( instance_01===instance_02 );    //输出:true

 

我们知道,在javascript,当且仅当 instance_01instance_02 指向的是 同一个实例对象,上述表达式才有可能输出为true,换言之,即:

如果instance_01 instance_02 指向的不是同一个实例对象,即使 instance_01 与 instance_02 拥有完全相同的属性值,上述表达式也会输出 false

可以做个小测试:

function Wife( name ){
    this.name = name;
}
Wife.prototype.shout = function(){
    console.log( 'i\'m your only wife '+ this.name +' , do remember !');
};

var wife_01 = new Wife( 'Marry' );
var wife_02 = new Wife( 'Mary' );

console.log( wife_01===wife_02 );    //尽管名字相同,但输出为:false,妻子竟然有两个,天~~

 

那么,最上面举的那个例子是怎么实现的呢?

最简单直观的思路:第一次调用该构造函数创建实例对象的时候,可以将该实例对象的引用保存下来,接下来,当该构造函数被再次调用,无论多少次,都只是返回之前保存的那个实例对象

还是用 妻子 那个例子:

function Wife( name ){
    if( Wife.instance ){
        return Wife.instance;
    }
    Wife.instance = this;
    this.name = name;
}

Wife.prototype.shout = function(){
    console.log( 'i\'m your only wife '+ this.name +' , do remember !');
};    
var wife_01 = new Wife( 'Marry' );
wife_01.shout();    //输出:i'm your only wife Marry , do remember !

var wife_02 = new Wife( 'Lucy' );
wife_02.shout();    //输出:i'm your only wife Marry , do remember !

console.log( wife_01===wife_02 );    //输出:true

 

很好,现在已经符合一夫一妻制的要求了,但总觉得有些不对劲——如果有人将 Wife.instance 恶意修改了,那不久悲剧了

针对于此,打个小补丁:

var Wife = (function(){
    var instance = null;    //外部无法直接访问,于是安全了
    var _wife = function( name ){
        if( instance ){
            return instance;
        }
        instance = this;
        this.name = name;
    }
    return _wife;
})();

Wife.prototype.shout = function(){
    console.log( 'i\'m your only wife '+ this.name +' , do remember !');
};    
var wife_01 = new Wife( 'Marry' );
wife_01.shout();    //输出:i'm your only wife Marry , do remember !

var wife_02 = new Wife( 'Lucy' );
wife_02.shout();    //输出:i'm your only wife Marry , do remember !

console.log( wife_01===wife_02 );    //输出:true

 

OVER


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