Prim 最小生成树算法

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Prim 最小生成树算法

嗯哼9925 2017-12-21 20:01:00 浏览632
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Prim 算法是一种解决最小生成树问题(Minimum Spanning Tree)的算法。和 Kruskal 算法类似,Prim 算法的设计也是基于贪心算法(Greedy algorithm)

Prim 算法的思想很简单,一棵生成树必须连接所有的顶点,而要保持最小权重则每次选择邻接的边时要选择较小权重的边。Prim 算法看起来非常类似于单源最短路径 Dijkstra 算法,从源点出发,寻找当前的最短路径,每次比较当前可达邻接顶点中最小的一个边加入到生成树中。

例如,下面这张连通的无向图 G,包含 9 个顶点和 14 条边,所以期待的最小生成树应包含 (9 - 1) = 8 条边。

创建 mstSet 包含到所有顶点的距离,初始为 INF,源点 0 的距离为 0,{0, INF, INF, INF, INF, INF, INF, INF, INF}。

选择当前最短距离的顶点,即还是顶点 0,将 0 加入 MST,此时邻接顶点为 1 和 7。

选择当前最小距离的顶点 1,将 1 加入 MST,此时邻接顶点为 2。

选择 2 和 7 中最小距离的顶点为 7,将 7 加入 MST,此时邻接顶点为 6 和 8。

选择 2, 6, 8 中最小距离的顶点为 6,将 6 加入 MST,此时邻接顶点为 5。

重复上面步骤直到遍历完所有顶点为止,会得到如下 MST。

C# 实现 Prim 算法如下。Prim 算法可以达到 O(ElogV) 的运行时间,如果采用斐波那契堆实现,运行时间可以减少到 O(E + VlogV),如果 V 远小于 E 的话,将是对算法较大的改进。

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  1 using System;
  2 using System.Collections.Generic;
  3 using System.Linq;
  4 
  5 namespace GraphAlgorithmTesting
  6 {
  7   class Program
  8   {
  9     static void Main(string[] args)
 10     {
 11       Graph g = new Graph(9);
 12       g.AddEdge(0, 1, 4);
 13       g.AddEdge(0, 7, 8);
 14       g.AddEdge(1, 2, 8);
 15       g.AddEdge(1, 7, 11);
 16       g.AddEdge(2, 3, 7);
 17       g.AddEdge(2, 5, 4);
 18       g.AddEdge(3, 4, 9);
 19       g.AddEdge(3, 5, 14);
 20       g.AddEdge(5, 4, 10);
 21       g.AddEdge(6, 5, 2);
 22       g.AddEdge(7, 6, 1);
 23       g.AddEdge(7, 8, 7);
 24       g.AddEdge(8, 2, 2);
 25       g.AddEdge(8, 6, 6);
 26 
 27       // sorry, this is an undirect graph,
 28       // so, you know that this is not a good idea.
 29       List<Edge> edges = g.Edges
 30         .Select(e => new Edge(e.End, e.Begin, e.Weight))
 31         .ToList();
 32       foreach (var edge in edges)
 33       {
 34         g.AddEdge(edge.Begin, edge.End, edge.Weight);
 35       }
 36 
 37       Console.WriteLine();
 38       Console.WriteLine("Graph Vertex Count : {0}", g.VertexCount);
 39       Console.WriteLine("Graph Edge Count : {0}", g.EdgeCount);
 40       Console.WriteLine();
 41 
 42       List<Edge> mst = g.Prim();
 43       Console.WriteLine("MST Edges:");
 44       foreach (var edge in mst.OrderBy(e => e.Weight))
 45       {
 46         Console.WriteLine("\t{0}", edge);
 47       }
 48 
 49       Console.ReadKey();
 50     }
 51 
 52     class Edge
 53     {
 54       public Edge(int begin, int end, int weight)
 55       {
 56         this.Begin = begin;
 57         this.End = end;
 58         this.Weight = weight;
 59       }
 60 
 61       public int Begin { get; private set; }
 62       public int End { get; private set; }
 63       public int Weight { get; private set; }
 64 
 65       public override string ToString()
 66       {
 67         return string.Format(
 68           "Begin[{0}], End[{1}], Weight[{2}]",
 69           Begin, End, Weight);
 70       }
 71     }
 72 
 73     class Graph
 74     {
 75       private Dictionary<int, List<Edge>> _adjacentEdges
 76         = new Dictionary<int, List<Edge>>();
 77 
 78       public Graph(int vertexCount)
 79       {
 80         this.VertexCount = vertexCount;
 81       }
 82 
 83       public int VertexCount { get; private set; }
 84 
 85       public IEnumerable<int> Vertices { get { return _adjacentEdges.Keys; } }
 86 
 87       public IEnumerable<Edge> Edges
 88       {
 89         get { return _adjacentEdges.Values.SelectMany(e => e); }
 90       }
 91 
 92       public int EdgeCount { get { return this.Edges.Count(); } }
 93 
 94       public void AddEdge(int begin, int end, int weight)
 95       {
 96         if (!_adjacentEdges.ContainsKey(begin))
 97         {
 98           var edges = new List<Edge>();
 99           _adjacentEdges.Add(begin, edges);
100         }
101 
102         _adjacentEdges[begin].Add(new Edge(begin, end, weight));
103       }
104 
105       public List<Edge> Prim()
106       {
107         // Array to store constructed MST
108         int[] parent = new int[VertexCount];
109 
110         // Key values used to pick minimum weight edge in cut
111         int[] keySet = new int[VertexCount];
112 
113         // To represent set of vertices not yet included in MST
114         bool[] mstSet = new bool[VertexCount];
115 
116         // Initialize all keys as INFINITE
117         for (int i = 0; i < VertexCount; i++)
118         {
119           keySet[i] = int.MaxValue;
120           mstSet[i] = false;
121         }
122 
123         // Always include first 1st vertex in MST.
124         // Make key 0 so that this vertex is picked as first vertex
125         keySet[0] = 0;
126         parent[0] = -1; // First node is always root of MST 
127 
128         // The MST will have V vertices
129         for (int i = 0; i < VertexCount - 1; i++)
130         {
131           // Pick thd minimum key vertex from the set of vertices
132           // not yet included in MST
133           int u = CalculateMinDistance(keySet, mstSet);
134 
135           // Add the picked vertex to the MST Set
136           mstSet[u] = true;
137 
138           // Update key value and parent index of the adjacent vertices of
139           // the picked vertex. Consider only those vertices which are not yet
140           // included in MST
141           for (int v = 0; v < VertexCount; v++)
142           {
143             // graph[u, v] is non zero only for adjacent vertices of m
144             // mstSet[v] is false for vertices not yet included in MST
145             // Update the key only if graph[u, v] is smaller than key[v]
146             if (!mstSet[v]
147               && _adjacentEdges.ContainsKey(u)
148               && _adjacentEdges[u].Exists(e => e.End == v))
149             {
150               int d = _adjacentEdges[u].Single(e => e.End == v).Weight;
151               if (d < keySet[v])
152               {
153                 keySet[v] = d;
154                 parent[v] = u;
155               }
156             }
157           }
158         }
159 
160         // get all MST edges
161         List<Edge> mst = new List<Edge>();
162         for (int i = 1; i < VertexCount; i++)
163           mst.Add(_adjacentEdges[parent[i]].Single(e => e.End == i));
164 
165         return mst;
166       }
167 
168       private int CalculateMinDistance(int[] keySet, bool[] mstSet)
169       {
170         int minDistance = int.MaxValue;
171         int minDistanceIndex = -1;
172 
173         for (int v = 0; v < VertexCount; v++)
174         {
175           if (!mstSet[v] && keySet[v] <= minDistance)
176           {
177             minDistance = keySet[v];
178             minDistanceIndex = v;
179           }
180         }
181 
182         return minDistanceIndex;
183       }
184     }
185   }
186 }
复制代码

输出结果如下:

参考资料









本文转自匠心十年博客园博客,原文链接:http://www.cnblogs.com/gaochundong/p/prim_minimum_spanning_tree.html,如需转载请自行联系原作者

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