Oracle RAC OCR 的备份与恢复

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Oracle RAC OCR 的备份与恢复

leshami 2013-02-26 11:25:12 浏览831
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        Oracle Clusterware把整个集群的配置信息放在共享存储上,这些信息包括了集群节点的列表、集群数据库实例到节点的映射以及CRS应用程序资源信息。也即是存放在ocr 磁盘(或者ocfs文件)上。因此对于这个配置文件的重要性是不言而喻的。任意使得ocr配置发生变化的操作在操作之间或之后都建议立即备份ocr。本文主要基于Oracle 10g RAC环境描述OCR的备份与恢复。
        OCR 相关参考:
        Oracle RAC OCR 与健忘症
        Oracle RAC OCR 的管理与维护
 
一、OCR的备份与恢复概念
        与Oracle数据库备份恢复相似,OCR的备份也有物理备份或逻辑备份的概念,因此有两种备份方式,两种恢复方式。
        物理备份与恢复:
                缺省情况下,Oracle 每4个小时对其做一次备份,并且保留最后的3个副本,以及前一天,前一周的最后一个备份副本。
                用户不能自定义备份频率以及备份文件的副本数。
                对于OCR的备份备份由是由Master Node CRSD进程完成,因此备份的默认位置是$CRS_HOME/crs/cdata/<cluster_name>目录下。
                备份的文件会自动更名,以反应备份时间顺序,最近一次的备份叫作backup00.ocr。
                由于是在Master Node的节点之上进行备份,因此备份文件仅存在于Master Node节点。
                对于Master Node的节点crash之后则由剩余节点接管。
                备份目录可以通过ocrconfig -backuploc <directory_name> 命令修改。
                OCR磁盘最多只能有两个,一个Primary OCR 和一个Mirror OCR。两者互为镜像以避免单点故障。
                对于物理备份恢复,不能简单的使用操作系统级别的复制命令(使用ocr文件时)来完成,该操作将导致ocr不可用。
                
        逻辑备份与恢复:
                使用ocrconfig -export 方式产生的备份,统称之为逻辑备份。
                对于重大的ocr配置发生变化前后,如添加删除节点,修改集群资源,创建数据库等,都建议使用逻辑备份。
                对于由于错误配置而导致的ocr被损坏的情形下,我们可以使用ocrconfig -import方式进行恢复。
                对于这种逻辑方式也可以还原丢失或损坏的ocr磁盘(文件)。
        
        备份建议:
                将oracle的自动备份产生的文件复制到共享或其它可用存储设备上。
                每天至少导出一次ocr配置信息。

二、备份OCR
1、OCR的自动备份
        #使用ocrconfig -showbackup查看ocr备份所在节点及路径
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> ocrconfig -showbackup
        
        bo2dbp     2013/02/25 06:23:15     /u01/oracle/crs/cdata/crs
        
        bo2dbp     2013/02/25 02:23:13     /u01/oracle/crs/cdata/crs
        
        bo2dbp     2013/02/24 22:23:13     /u01/oracle/crs/cdata/crs
        
        bo2dbp     2013/02/24 02:23:09     /u01/oracle/crs/cdata/crs
        
        bo2dbp     2013/02/22 18:23:04     /u01/oracle/crs/cdata/crs
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> ls -hltr /u01/oracle/crs/cdata/crs
        total 40M
        -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 6.7M 2013-02-22 18:23 week.ocr
        -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 6.7M 2013-02-24 02:23 day.ocr
        -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 6.7M 2013-02-24 22:23 backup02.ocr
        -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 6.7M 2013-02-25 02:23 backup01.ocr
        -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 6.7M 2013-02-25 02:23 day_.ocr
        -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 6.7M 2013-02-25 06:23 backup00.ocr

        #改变物理备份路径
                ocrconfig -backuploc <new_dirname>

        #使用物理备份恢复ocr
                ocrconfig -restore <backup_file_name>
                对于物理备份,仅仅只能使用restore方式来进行恢复,而不支持import方式

2、OCR的手动备份
        OCR的手动备份也即是逻辑备份,使用-export方式来实现
        ocrconfig -export <backup_file_name>
        
        #备份示例
        #建议在不同的节点导出ocr,导出位置尽可能存放在共享磁盘,以便任意节点均可从该磁盘恢复
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> sudo -s /u01/oracle/crs/bin/ocrconfig -export /u02/crs_bak/ocr_bak/exp/bo2dbp/ocr_bak.dmp
        root'''s password:
        oracle@bo2dbp:/u02/crs_bak/ocr_bak/exp/bo2dbp> ls -hltr /u02/crs_bak/ocr_bak/exp/bo2dbp/ocr_bak.dmp
        -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 144K 2013-02-25 10:10 /u02/crs_bak/ocr_bak/exp/bo2dbp/ocr_bak.dmp
        oracle@bo2dbs:~> sudo -s /u01/oracle/crs/bin/ocrconfig -export /u02/crs_bak/ocr_bak/exp/bo2dbs/ocr_bak.dmp
        root'''s password:
三、OCR的恢复
1、从可用的OCR镜像中恢复受损的OCR
        a、首先模拟ocr 损坏
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/raw/raw1 bs=1024k count=10
        10+0 records in
        10+0 records out
        10485760 bytes (10 MB) copied, 0.24662 seconds, 42.5 MB/s
        
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> ocrcheck
        Status of Oracle Cluster Registry is as follows :
                 Version                  :          2
                 Total space (kbytes)     :     204560
                 Used space (kbytes)      :       6184
                 Available space (kbytes) :     198376
                 ID                       : 1512159503
                 Device/File Name         : /dev/raw/raw1
                                            Device/File integrity check failed
        n        Device/File Name         : /dev/raw/raw11
                                            Device/File integrity check succeeded
        
                 Cluster registry integrity check succeeded
        
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> ocrcheck
        Status of Oracle Cluster Registry is as follows :
                 Version                  :          2
                 Total space (kbytes)     :     204560
                 Used space (kbytes)      :       6184
                 Available space (kbytes) :     198376
                 ID                       : 1512159503
                 Device/File Name         : /dev/raw/raw1
                                            Device/File needs to be synchronized with the other device
                 Device/File Name         : /dev/raw/raw11
                                            Device/File integrity check succeeded
        
                 Cluster registry integrity check succeeded        
        
        #尽管此时ocr文件被破坏,但整个集群依旧处于Online状态,此处不列出,读者可自行验证
        #接下来修复ocr
        
        b、校验所在的裸设备处于可用状态
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> sudo -s rcraw status | grep raw1
        root''''s password:
        /dev/raw/raw1:  bound to major 8, minor 33
        /dev/raw/raw11: bound to major 8, minor 113  

        c、校验裸设备的权限
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> ls -hltr /dev/raw/raw1
        crw-rw---- 1 oracle dba 162, 1 2013-02-05 16:00 /dev/raw/raw1  
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> ssh bo2dbs ls -hltr /dev/raw/raw1
        crw-rw---- 1 oracle dba 162, 1 2013-02-05 10:28 /dev/raw/raw1    

        d、重新初始化裸设备
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/raw/raw1 bs=1024k count=200
        dd: writing `/dev/raw/raw1': No space left on device
        200+0 records in
        199+0 records out
        209698816 bytes (210 MB) copied, 4.84775 seconds, 43.3 MB/s

        e、从镜像ocr恢复主ocr
                #实际上等同于添加一个新的ocr。此时主ocr从镜像ocr复制内容。
                #对于镜像ocr的损坏可以采用相同的方式如法炮制。
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> sudo -s /u01/oracle/crs/bin/ocrconfig -replace ocr /dev/raw/raw1
        root''''s password:
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> ocrcheck
        Status of Oracle Cluster Registry is as follows :
                 Version                  :          2
                 Total space (kbytes)     :     204560
                 Used space (kbytes)      :       6184
                 Available space (kbytes) :     198376
                 ID                       : 1512159503
                 Device/File Name         : /dev/raw/raw1
                                            Device/File integrity check succeeded
                 Device/File Name         : /dev/raw/raw11
                                            Device/File integrity check succeeded
        
                 Cluster registry integrity check succeeded

        f、校验修复情况
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> cluvfy comp ocr -n all
        
        Verifying OCR integrity
        
        Checking OCR integrity...
        
        Checking the absence of a non-clustered configuration...
        All nodes free of non-clustered, local-only configurations.
        
        Uniqueness check for OCR device passed.
        
        Checking the version of OCR...
        OCR of correct Version "2" exists.
        
        Checking data integrity of OCR...
        Data integrity check for OCR passed.
        
        OCR integrity check passed.
        
        Verification of OCR integrity was successful.          

2、从逻辑备份(导出的文件)中恢复OCR
        a、首先查看一下ocr的位置
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> more /etc/oracle/ocr.loc
        #Device/file /dev/raw/raw1 getting replaced by device /dev/raw/raw1
        ocrconfig_loc=/dev/raw/raw1
        ocrmirrorconfig_loc=/dev/raw/raw11
        local_only=false

        b、停止两个节点上的crs
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> sudo -s /u01/oracle/crs/bin/crsctl stop crs
        root''''s password:
        Stopping resources. This could take several minutes.
        Successfully stopped CRS resources.
        Stopping CSSD.
        Shutting down CSS daemon.
        Shutdown request successfully issued.
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> ps -ef | grep d.bin | grep -v grep

        oracle@bo2dbs:~> sudo -s /u01/oracle/crs/bin/crsctl stop crs
        root''''s password:
        Stopping resources. This could take several minutes.
        Successfully stopped CRS resources.
        Stopping CSSD.
        Shutting down CSS daemon.
        Shutdown request successfully issued.
        # Author : Robinson
        # Blog   : http://blog.csdn.net/robinson_0612
        oracle@bo2dbs:~> ps -ef | grep d.bin | grep -v grep

        c、尝试破坏ocr
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/raw/raw1 bs=1024k count=10
        10+0 records in
        10+0 records out
        10485760 bytes (10 MB) copied, 0.1811 seconds, 57.9 MB/s
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/raw/raw11 bs=1024k count=10
        10+0 records in
        10+0 records out
        10485760 bytes (10 MB) copied, 0.167224 seconds, 62.7 MB/s
        
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> sudo -s /u01/oracle/crs/bin/crsctl start crs
        Attempting to start CRS stack
        The CRS stack will be started shortly
        oracle@bo2dbp:~>  ps -ef | grep d.bin | grep -v grep
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> ./crs_stat.sh     #这个查看已经无法同crs通信
         Resource name                                Target     State             
        --------------                                ------     -----             
        error connecting to CRSD at [(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=ipc)(KEY=ora_crsqs))] clsccon 184
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> crs_stat -t
        CRS-0184: Cannot communicate with the CRS daemon.

        d、从导出的备份文件中恢复ocr
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> sudo -s /u01/oracle/crs/bin/ocrconfig -import /u02/crs_bak/ocr_bak/exp/bo2dbp/ocr_bak.dmp
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> sudo -s /u01/oracle/crs/bin/crsctl start crs
        Attempting to start CRS stack
        The CRS stack will be started shortly
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> ps -ef | grep d.bin | grep -v grep
        oracle   27209 23220  0 10:32 ?        00:00:00 /u01/oracle/crs/bin/evmd.bin
        root     27307 23392  0 10:32 ?        00:00:01 /u01/oracle/crs/bin/crsd.bin reboot
        oracle   27613 27153  0 10:32 ?        00:00:00 /u01/oracle/crs/bin/ocssd.bin

        #尝试启动第2个几点的crs
        oracle@bo2dbs:~> sudo -s /u01/oracle/crs/bin/crsctl start crs
        root''''s password:
        Attempting to start CRS stack
        The CRS stack will be started shortly
        
        e、在第二个节点上执行ocrcheck,此时显示ocrcheck成功
        oracle@bo2dbs:~> ocrcheck
        Status of Oracle Cluster Registry is as follows :
                 Version                  :          2
                 Total space (kbytes)     :     204560
                 Used space (kbytes)      :       6184
                 Available space (kbytes) :     198376
                 ID                       : 1325424958
                 Device/File Name         : /dev/raw/raw1
                                            Device/File integrity check succeeded
                 Device/File Name         : /dev/raw/raw11
                                            Device/File integrity check succeeded
        
                 Cluster registry integrity check succeeded

        oracle@bo2dbs:~> cluvfy comp ocr -n all   #使用cluvfy工具校验
        
        Verifying OCR integrity
        
        Checking OCR integrity...
        
        Checking the absence of a non-clustered configuration...
        All nodes free of non-clustered, local-only configurations.
        
        Uniqueness check for OCR device passed.
        
        Checking the version of OCR...
        OCR of correct Version "2" exists.
        
        Checking data integrity of OCR...
        Data integrity check for OCR passed.
        
        OCR integrity check passed.
        
        Verification of OCR integrity was successful.

3、从物理备份中恢复OCR
        a、查看ocr的备份信息
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> ocrconfig -showbackup
        
        bo2dbp     2013/02/25 06:23:15     /u01/oracle/crs/cdata/crs
        
        bo2dbp     2013/02/25 02:23:13     /u01/oracle/crs/cdata/crs
        
        bo2dbp     2013/02/24 22:23:13     /u01/oracle/crs/cdata/crs
        
        bo2dbp     2013/02/24 02:23:09     /u01/oracle/crs/cdata/crs
        
        bo2dbp     2013/02/22 18:23:04     /u01/oracle/crs/cdata/crs
        
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> ls -hltr /u01/oracle/crs/cdata/crs   #此时ocr的备份位于节点1
        total 40M
        -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 6.7M 2013-02-22 18:23 week.ocr
        -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 6.7M 2013-02-24 02:23 day.ocr
        -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 6.7M 2013-02-24 22:23 backup02.ocr
        -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 6.7M 2013-02-25 02:23 backup01.ocr
        -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 6.7M 2013-02-25 02:23 day_.ocr
        -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 6.7M 2013-02-25 06:23 backup00.ocr
        
        b、尝试损坏ocr文件
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/raw/raw1 bs=1024k count=10
        10+0 records in
        10+0 records out
        10485760 bytes (10 MB) copied, 0.279904 seconds, 37.5 MB/s
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/raw/raw11 bs=1024k count=10
        10+0 records in
        10+0 records out
        10485760 bytes (10 MB) copied, 0.145885 seconds, 71.9 MB/s
        
        #此时何ocr相关的操作都处于失败状态
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> ocrcheck   
        Segmentation fault (core dumped)
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> ocrconfig -showbackup
        Segmentation fault (core dumped)
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> crs_stat -t
        Segmentation fault (core dumped)
        
        #ASM实例和RAC实例依旧处于online
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> ps -ef | grep pmon
        oracle    7915     1  0 10:09 ?        00:00:00 asm_pmon_+ASM1
        oracle    9234     1  0 10:10 ?        00:00:00 ora_pmon_ora10g1
        oracle   31704 11229  0 10:26 pts/0    00:00:00 grep pmon
        
        c、关闭crs,集群数据库及ASM
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> export ORACLE_SID=ora10g1
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> sqlplus / as sysdba
        
        SQL> show parameter db_name
        
        NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
        ------------------------------------ ----------- ------------
        db_name                              string      ora10g
        
      #此时查看一下ocr的位置,以便于恢复时查看对应的裸设备
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> more /etc/oracle/ocr.loc
        #Device/file /dev/raw/raw1 getting replaced by device /dev/raw/raw1
        ocrconfig_loc=/dev/raw/raw1
        ocrmirrorconfig_loc=/dev/raw/raw11
        local_only=false
        
        #停止crs,收到错误提示
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> sudo -s /u01/oracle/crs/bin/crsctl stop crs
        root''''s password:
        Segmentation fault
        
        oracle@bo2dbs:~> sudo -s /u01/oracle/crs/bin/crsctl stop crs
        root''''s password:
        Segmentation fault
        
        #下面的查询中crsd进程已经crash
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> ps -ef | grep d.bin | grep -v grep
        oracle    5844  5189  0 10:09 ?        00:00:00 /u01/oracle/crs/bin/evmd.bin
        oracle    6357  5883  0 10:09 ?        00:00:04 /u01/oracle/crs/bin/ocssd.bin

        #关闭集群数据库
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> export ORACLE_SID=ora10g1
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> sqlplus / as sysdba
        
        SQL> shutdown immediate;
        
        oracle@bo2dbs:~> export ORACLE_SID=ora10g2
        oracle@bo2dbs:~> sqlplus / as sysdba
        
        SQL> shutdown immediate;
        
        d、重启节点
        bo2dbp:~ # reboot
        bo2dbs:~ # reboot
        
        e、校验ocr所在的裸设备及其权限
        #校验所在的裸设备处于可用状态
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> sudo -s rcraw status | grep raw1
        root''''s password:
        /dev/raw/raw1:  bound to major 8, minor 33
        /dev/raw/raw11: bound to major 8, minor 113  
        
        #校验裸设备的权限
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> ls -hltr /dev/raw/raw1
        crw-rw---- 1 oracle dba 162, 1 2013-02-05 16:00 /dev/raw/raw1  
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> ssh bo2dbs ls -hltr /dev/raw/raw1
        crw-rw---- 1 oracle dba 162, 1 2013-02-05 10:28 /dev/raw/raw1
        
        #清空裸设备
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/raw/raw1 bs=1024k count=200
        dd: writing `/dev/raw/raw1': No space left on device
        200+0 records in
        199+0 records out
        209698816 bytes (210 MB) copied, 4.84775 seconds, 43.3 MB/s
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/raw/raw11 bs=1024k count=200
        dd: writing `/dev/raw/raw11': No space left on device
        200+0 records in
        199+0 records out
        209698816 bytes (210 MB) copied, 2.30847 seconds, 90.8 MB/s
        
        f、从物理备份中恢复ocr
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> sudo -s /u01/oracle/crs/bin/ocrconfig -restore /u01/oracle/crs/cdata/crs/backup00.ocr
        root''''s password:
        
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> sudo -s /u01/oracle/crs/bin/crsctl start crs
        Attempting to start CRS stack
        The CRS stack will be started shortly
        
        oracle@bo2dbs:~> sudo -s /u01/oracle/crs/bin/crsctl start crs
        root''''s password:
        Attempting to start CRS stack
        The CRS stack will be started shortly
        
        g、校验恢复结果
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> ocrcheck
        Status of Oracle Cluster Registry is as follows :
                 Version                  :          2
                 Total space (kbytes)     :     204560
                 Used space (kbytes)      :       6184
                 Available space (kbytes) :     198376
                 ID                       : 1512159503
                 Device/File Name         : /dev/raw/raw1
                                            Device/File integrity check succeeded
                 Device/File Name         : /dev/raw/raw11
                                            Device/File integrity check succeeded
        
                 Cluster registry integrity check succeeded
        
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> cluvfy comp ocr -n all
        
        Verifying OCR integrity
        
        Checking OCR integrity...
        
        Checking the absence of a non-clustered configuration...
        All nodes free of non-clustered, local-only configurations.
        
        Uniqueness check for OCR device passed.
        
        Checking the version of OCR...
        OCR of correct Version "2" exists.
        
        Checking data integrity of OCR...
        Data integrity check for OCR passed.
        
        OCR integrity check passed.
        
        Verification of OCR integrity was successful.          
        
        #校验application
        oracle@bo2dbp:~> ./crs_stat.sh | grep bo2dbp
        ora.bo2dbp.ASM1.asm                           ONLINE     ONLINE on bo2dbp  
        ora.bo2dbp.LISTENER_BO2DBP.lsnr               ONLINE     ONLINE on bo2dbp  
        ora.bo2dbp.LISTENER_ORA10G_BO2DBP.lsnr        ONLINE     ONLINE on bo2dbp  
        ora.bo2dbp.gsd                                ONLINE     ONLINE on bo2dbp  
        ora.bo2dbp.ons                                ONLINE     ONLINE on bo2dbp  
        ora.bo2dbp.vip                                ONLINE     ONLINE on bo2dbp  
        ora.ora10g.ora10g1.inst                       ONLINE     ONLINE on bo2dbp
更多参考:

有关Oracle RAC请参考
     使用crs_setperm修改RAC资源的所有者及权限
     使用crs_profile管理RAC资源配置文件
     RAC 数据库的启动与关闭
     再说 Oracle RAC services
     Services in Oracle Database 10g
     Migrate datbase from single instance to Oracle RAC
     Oracle RAC 连接到指定实例
     Oracle RAC 负载均衡测试(结合服务器端与客户端)
     Oracle RAC 服务器端连接负载均衡(Load Balance)
     Oracle RAC 客户端连接负载均衡(Load Balance)
     ORACLE RAC 下非缺省端口监听配置(listener.ora tnsnames.ora)
     ORACLE RAC 监听配置 (listener.ora tnsnames.ora)
     配置 RAC 负载均衡与故障转移
     CRS-1006 , CRS-0215 故障一例 
     基于Linux (RHEL 5.5) 安装Oracle 10g RAC
     使用 runcluvfy 校验Oracle RAC安装环境

有关Oracle 网络配置相关基础以及概念性的问题请参考:
     配置非默认端口的动态服务注册
     配置sqlnet.ora限制IP访问Oracle
     Oracle 监听器日志配置与管理
     设置 Oracle 监听器密码(LISTENER)
     配置ORACLE 客户端连接到数据库

有关基于用户管理的备份和备份恢复的概念请参考
     Oracle 冷备份
     Oracle 热备份
     Oracle 备份恢复概念
     Oracle 实例恢复
     Oracle 基于用户管理恢复的处理
     SYSTEM 表空间管理及备份恢复
     SYSAUX表空间管理及恢复
     Oracle 基于备份控制文件的恢复(unsing backup controlfile)

有关RMAN的备份恢复与管理请参考
     RMAN 概述及其体系结构
     RMAN 配置、监控与管理
     RMAN 备份详解
     RMAN 还原与恢复
     RMAN catalog 的创建和使用
     基于catalog 创建RMAN存储脚本
     基于catalog 的RMAN 备份与恢复
     RMAN 备份路径困惑
     使用RMAN实现异机备份恢复(WIN平台)
     使用RMAN迁移文件系统数据库到ASM
     linux 下RMAN备份shell脚本
     使用RMAN迁移数据库到异机

有关ORACLE体系结构请参考
     Oracle 表空间与数据文件
     Oracle 密码文件
     Oracle 参数文件
     Oracle 联机重做日志文件(ONLINE LOG FILE)
     Oracle 控制文件(CONTROLFILE)
     Oracle 归档日志
     Oracle 回滚(ROLLBACK)和撤销(UNDO)
     Oracle 数据库实例启动关闭过程
     Oracle 10g SGA 的自动化管理
     Oracle 实例和Oracle数据库(Oracle体系结构)


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