快速体验Percona XtraDB Cluster(PXC)

  1. 云栖社区>
  2. 博客>
  3. 正文

快速体验Percona XtraDB Cluster(PXC)

leshami 2017-05-15 16:34:50 浏览800
展开阅读全文

Percona XtraDB Cluster(简称PXC)集群是基于Galera 2.x library,事务型应用下的通用的多主同步复制插件,主要用于解决强一致性问题,使得各个节点之间的数据保持实时同步以及实现多节点同时读写。提高了数据库的可靠性,也可以实现读写分离,是MySQL关系型数据库中大家公认的集群优选方案之一。本文简要介绍其原理并给出安装指导。

一、PXC结构及特性

1、结构及基本描述

这里写图片描述

群集由节点组成。建议的配置是至少有3个节点,但你可以使它
2节点运行。

每个节点可以是常规MySQL或者Percona Server程序。支持将现有的MySQL/Percona Server为节点提升为集群节点。也可以从集群中分离节点,使它作为一个普通的服务器。

每个节点包含完整的数据副本。

2、优点及限制

PXC的优点:

  服务高可用

  数据同步复制(并发复制),几乎无延迟;

  多个可同时读写节点,可实现写扩展,不过最好事先进行分库分表,让各个节点分别写不同的表或者库,避免让galera解决数据冲突;

  新节点可以自动部署,部署操作简单;

  数据严格一致性,尤其适合电商类应用;

  完全兼容MySQL;

PXC局限性:

  只支持InnoDB引擎;

  所有表都要有主键;

  不支持LOCK TABLE等显式锁操作;

  锁冲突、死锁问题相对更多;

  不支持XA;

  集群吞吐量/性能取决于短板;

  新加入节点采用SST时代价高;

  存在写扩大问题;

  如果并发事务量很大的话,建议采用InfiniBand网络,降低网络延迟;

二、安装及配置

1、安装环境

在每个群集节点上进行以下配置

### OS版本
# cat /etc/issue
CentOS release 6.7 (Final)
Kernel \r on an \m

###将以下内容添加到所有节点
# vi /etc/hosts

192.168.1.132 node132 #主节点
192.168.1.133 node133
192.168.1.135 node135

mysql> select 'Leshami' Author,'http://blog.csdn.net/leshami' Blog,'645746311' QQ;
+---------+------------------------------+-----------+
| Author  | Blog                         | QQ        |
+---------+------------------------------+-----------+
| Leshami | http://blog.csdn.net/leshami | 645746311 |
+---------+------------------------------+-----------+

###关闭防火墙
# service iptables stop
# chkconfig iptables off
# vi /etc/selinux/config
    SELINUX=disabled   #修改该项为disabled
# setenforce 0       #立即生效,而无需重启OS

2、配置yum源及安装PXC(所有节点)

###配置epel源

# rpm -Uvh http://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/6/x86_64/epel-release-6-8.noarch.rpm

###基于YUM方式安装
# yum -y install cmake gcc gcc-c++ libaio libaio-devel automake autoconf bzr  ncurses5-devel 
  # yum -y install perl-DBD-MySQL  perl-DBI  perl-Time-HiRes

# yum install http://www.percona.com/downloads/percona-release/redhat/0.1-3/percona-release-0.1-3.noarch.rpm
# yum install Percona-XtraDB-Cluster-56

### 如果服务器无法直接连接到yum源,使用RPM安装:        
# rpm -Uvh autoconf-2.63-5.1.el6.noarch.rpm
# rpm -Uvh bzr-2.1.1-2.el6.x86_64.rpm
# rpm -Uvh compat-readline5-5.2-17.1.el6.x86_64.rpm
# rpm -Uvh libaio-devel-0.3.107-10.el6.x86_64.rpm
# rpm -Uvh perl-DBI-1.609-4.el6.x86_64.rpm 
# rpm -Uvh perl-DBD-MySQL-4.013-3.el6.x86_64.rpm
# rpm -Uvh automake-1.11.1-4.el6.noarch.rpm
# rpm -Uvh cmake-2.8.12.2-4.el6.x86_64.rpm
# rpm -Uvh libstdc++-4.4.7-18.el6.x86_64.rpm
# rpm -Uvh libstdc++-devel-4.4.7-18.el6.x86_64.rpm
# rpm -Uvh libgomp-4.4.7-18.el6.x86_64.rpm
# rpm -Uvh gcc-c++-4.4.7-18.el6.x86_64.rpm
# rpm -Uvh cpp-4.4.7-18.el6.x86_64.rpm
# rpm -Uvh libgcc-4.4.7-18.el6.x86_64.rpm
# rpm -Uvh libev-4.15-1.el6.rf.x86_64.rpm
# rpm -Uvh socat-1.7.2.3-1.el6.x86_64.rpm
# rpm -Uvh mysql-libs-5.1.73-8.el6_8.x86_64.rpm
# rpm -Uvh percona-xtrabackup-2.3.8-1.el6.x86_64.rpm
# rpm -ivh Percona-XtraDB-Cluster-shared-56-5.6.35-26.20.2.el6.x86_64.rpm
# rpm -ivh Percona-XtraDB-Cluster-galera-3-3.20-2.el6.x86_64.rpm
# rpm -ivh Percona-XtraDB-Cluster-client-56-5.6.35-26.20.2.el6.x86_64.rpm
# rpm -ivh Percona-XtraDB-Cluster-devel-56-5.6.35-26.20.2.el6.x86_64.rpm
# rpm -ivh Percona-XtraDB-Cluster-server-56-5.6.35-26.20.2.el6.x86_64.rpm

3、配置主节点


###本演示中主节点为:192.168.1.132
初始化主节点

# /usr/bin/mysql_install_db --basedir=/usr --user=mysql

启动mysql
# service mysql start

修改密码
# /usr/bin/mysqladmin -u root -h localhost password 'pass'

创建用户
mysql> grant reload,lock tables,replication client on *.* to 'sstuser'@'%' identified by 'xxx';

关闭mysql
# service mysql stop

修改/etc/my.cnf增加以下信息:

[mysql]
user=root
password=pass

[mysqld]
datadir=/var/lib/mysql
user=mysql
server_id=132
wsrep_provider=/usr/lib64/libgalera_smm.so
wsrep_cluster_address="gcomm://192.168.1.132,192.168.1.133,192.168.1.135"
wsrep_sst_auth=wsrep_sst_auth=sstuser:xxx
wsrep_cluster_name=my_pxc_cluster
wsrep_sst_method=rsync
wsrep_node_address=192.168.1.132
wsrep_slave_threads=2
innodb_locks_unsafe_for_binlog=1
innodb_autoinc_lock_mode=2
binlog_format=ROW

启动mysql及PXC服务
/etc/init.d/mysql bootstrap-pxc

4、配置其他节点

其他节点上修改配置文件如下,以下以192.168.1.133为例
[mysql]
user=root
password=pass

[mysqld]
datadir=/var/lib/mysql
user=mysql
server_id=133
wsrep_provider=/usr/lib64/libgalera_smm.so
wsrep_cluster_address="gcomm://192.168.1.132,192.168.1.133,192.168.1.135"
wsrep_sst_auth=wsrep_sst_auth=sstuser:xxx
wsrep_cluster_name=my_pxc_cluster
wsrep_sst_method=rsync
wsrep_node_address=192.168.1.133
wsrep_slave_threads=2
innodb_locks_unsafe_for_binlog=1
innodb_autoinc_lock_mode=2
binlog_format=ROW

注:各群集节点上server_id和wsrep_node_address设置为不同的值

配置文件修改完毕后,启动当前节点mysql
注,集群非初始主节点,则无需初始化数据库

# service mysql start

mysql> show global status like 'wsrep%';
+------------------------------+--------------------------------------+
| Variable_name                | Value                                |
+------------------------------+--------------------------------------+
| wsrep_local_state_uuid       | 05e19a0d-379c-11e7-8547-f6f31f261bbc |
| wsrep_protocol_version       | 7                                    |
| wsrep_last_committed         | 6                                    |
| wsrep_replicated             | 2                                    |
                ................                                      |
| wsrep_cert_interval          | 0.000000                             |
| wsrep_incoming_addresses     | 192.168.1.132:3306,192.168.1.133:330 |
| wsrep_desync_count           | 0                                    |
| wsrep_evs_delayed            |                                      |
| wsrep_evs_evict_list         |                                      |
| wsrep_evs_repl_latency       | 0/0/0/0/0                            |
| wsrep_evs_state              | OPERATIONAL                          |
| wsrep_gcomm_uuid             | baf33684-37ad-11e7-90ea-1e5d080abc7d |
| wsrep_cluster_conf_id        | 9                                    |
| wsrep_cluster_size           | 2 |
| wsrep_cluster_state_uuid     | 05e19a0d-379c-11e7-8547-f6f31f261bbc |
| wsrep_cluster_status         | Primary                              |
| wsrep_connected              | ON                                  |
| wsrep_local_bf_aborts        | 0                                    |
| wsrep_local_index            | 0                                    |
| wsrep_provider_name          | Galera                               |
| wsrep_provider_vendor        | Codership Oy <info@codership.com>    |
| wsrep_provider_version       | 3.20(r7e383f7)                       |
| wsrep_ready                  | ON                                   |
+------------------------------+--------------------------------------+
59 rows in set (0.01 sec)

关注:wsrep_cluster_size 表示可用节点数,当前为2.wsrep_connected为ON,表示已连接。

另外一个节点如法炮制。

5、验证结果

在任意节点建表以及更新数据,在其他节点均可以见。
mysql> show status like 'wsrep_cluster_status';
+----------------------+---------+
| Variable_name        | Value   |
+----------------------+---------+
| wsrep_cluster_status | Primary |
+----------------------+---------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> use test;

mysql> create table t(id int,val varchar(20));
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.04 sec)

mysql> insert into t values(1,'robin');
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.01 sec)

--以下查询结果为133节点返回数据
mysql> select * from t;
+------+-------+
| id   | val   |
+------+-------+
|    1 | robin |
+------+-------+

--在其余2节点验证,应该可以看到数据。
--反之,在某一个节点上插入数据,其余节点也可以看到。

DBA牛鹏社(SQL/NOSQL/LINUX)

这里写图片描述

网友评论

登录后评论
0/500
评论
leshami
+ 关注